Data Exchange and Data System Interoperability

This webpage includes resources to improve information flow between public health data surveillance systems by:

  • designing and implementing information systems, devices, and applications (systems) to access, exchange, integrate, and cooperatively use data in a coordinated manner.
  • incorporating well vetted and widely used data standards, especially those used in health care and endorsed by standards development organizations.
  • linking and integrating data to support analytics across data sources and data systems.
  • applying principles of good ethical practice and value judgments related to data collection, dissemination, and use.
Data Exchange

Case-Based Surveillance

Electronic Case Reporting (eCR)
This site provides information about eCR, including how to get started with eCR.

National Notifiable Diseases Surveillance System (NNDSS) Technical Resource Center
This site provides the guidance, tools, and help needed to implement NNDSS HL7® case notification messages.

National Electronic Disease Surveillance System Base System (NBS)
This site provides resources to help public health agencies with researching system choices, implementation, customization, and use of NBS in jurisdictions.


Immunization Information Systems (IIS)
This website provides more information about IIS.

Laboratory Data Exchange

Electronic Laboratory Reporting (ELR)
This is the standardized process of transmitting digital laboratory reports from laboratories to jurisdictional public health agencies and CDC.

Electronic Test Orders and Results (ETOR)
Contact to learn more about this innovative, bidirectional data exchange that uses existing standards to transmit test orders, specimen and patient information, and test results between clinical and jurisdictional public health laboratories.

Syndromic Surveillance

National Syndromic Surveillance Program (NSSP) Technical Resource Center
This site provides resources to bring facilities onboard the BioSense Platform, update Master Facility Tables, get started using the Platform tools, and comply with HL7® case notifications from mapping guides.

Vital Records

National Vital Statistics System (NVSS)
This site provides information about NVSS.

Data Interoperability

Health Level 7 (HL7®) Fast Healthcare Interoperability Resources (FHIR®)
The Office of the National Coordinator for Health Information Technology (ONC)
HL7® FHIR® is a next-generation interoperability standard created by the standards development organization HL7®. FHIR® is designed to enable health data, including clinical and administrative data, to be quickly and efficiently exchanged.

Regenstrief Institute
This website provides more information about this international standard for identifying health measurements, observations, and documents.

Public Health Interoperability Training Catalog
A curated set of training and education resources, tools, presentations, and publications on interoperability – both general and specifically for public health – that encompass a wide variety of topics, including general interoperability and standards, public health informatics, governance, data quality, and terminology.

SNOMED International
International Health Terminology Standards Development Organization (IHTSDO)
This website provides more information about SNOMED, which are organized lists of a wide variety of clinical terminology defined with unique codes.

United States Core Data for Interoperability (USCDI)
The Office of the National Coordinator for Health Information Technology (ONC)
The USCDI is a standardized set of health data classes and constituent data elements for nationwide, interoperable health information exchange.

Other Data Resources

Tribal Public Health Data
This site provides information about CDC tribal health data, issues, tools, technical assistance, and training, as well as tribal data-related resources from public health partners.

Systems Interoperability

Appendix IV – State and Local Public Health Readiness for Interoperability
Office of the National Coordinator for Health Information Technology (ONC)
A website that provides jurisdictional public health departments with interoperability information, such as local implementation guides, which programs and implementation guides are supported, contact information, and more.

Cloud Adoption Playbook
General Services Administration (GSA)
A playbook to help agencies deliver modern digital services using cloud services.

Fast Healthcare Interoperability Resources (FHIR®)
HL7® International
This site provides more information on FHIR®, a standard for helping healthcare and public health agencies electronically exchange electronic health record (EHR) data between different data systems.

Interoperability Standards Advisory (ISA)
Office of the National Coordinator for Health Information Technology (ONC)
A website that provides more information on the ISA process, which is how ONC coordinates the identification, assessment, and determination of “recognized” interoperability standards and implementation specifications for industry use to fulfill specific clinical health IT interoperability needs.

Match*Pro Software
National Institutes of Health
Open-source software used to conduct probabilistic record linkages based on the Fellegi and Sunter model

Public Health Application Programming Interfaces (API) White Paper
Digital Bridge Public Health API Workgroup
A resource to better understand the basic API concepts and opportunities for application in public health.

Public Health Data Interoperability
Website that provides information and resources for implementing data interoperability through electronic case reporting (eCR), electronic laboratory reporting (ELR), the Immunization Information System (IIS), the National Syndromic Surveillance Program (NSSP), and Public Health Registries Reporting.