- DSLR begins re-engineering the PHEP cooperative agreement to support a new capabilities-based approach that better defines the strategic focus and priorities of the PHEP program. The new capabilities model provides a more systematic process for CDC subject matter expert engagement, prioritizes state and local preparedness capabilities, and puts more focus on awardee strategic planning.
- In December, CDC, the HHS Office of the Assistant Secretary for Preparedness and Response (ASPR), and other federal partners begin developing strategies to better align grants with public health and health care preparedness components. Improved coordination among federal emergency preparedness programs is a high priority of the White House National Security Staff, Office of Management and Budget, HHS, and other federal entities, and for PHEP and ASPR’s Hospital Preparedness Program (HPP) recipients.
- On April 26, the Acting Department of Health and Human Services (HHS) Secretary declares a public health emergency. The declaration is made in response to the detection of 20 known cases of individuals infected by a swine-origin influenza A virus, now known as novel Influenza A (H1N1), in the United States. On June 11, the World Health Organization declares the first pandemic in more than 40 years in recognition of widespread, sustained human–to–human transmission of the virus in multiple regions around the globe.
- Congress appropriates funding in June through the 2009 Supplemental Appropriations Act for the Public Health and Social Services Emergency Fund to prepare for and respond to an influenza pandemic. This funding provides HHS and other federal and state agencies with resources to respond to ongoing and emerging outbreaks of novel H1N1 influenza in the United States. CDC administers $1.4 billion in four phases through the Public Health Emergency Response (PHER) grant to upgrade state and local pandemic influenza preparedness and response capacity.
- The CDC State Coordination Task Force (SCTF) for H1N1 is established as one of several CDC Incident Management System (IMS) H1N1 response task forces. The SCTF enhances the national and state, local, tribal, and territorial (SLTT) public health response to H1N1 through data analysis; technical assistance; and bidirectional coordination and communication. SCTF’s primary function is to facilitate effective and timely movement of information and open communication between CDC and state, local, and territorial public health partners.
- CDC releases its inaugural report on public health emergency preparedness, “Public Health Preparedness: Mobilizing State by State,” which focuses on the impact of the PHEP cooperative agreement, the agency’s largest investment in state and local preparedness. The report highlights the progress made in state and local preparedness and response, identifies preparedness challenges that public health departments face, and outlines CDC’s efforts to address those challenges.
- CDC awards the $24 million remaining from the second phase of pandemic influenza supplemental funding to PHEP recipients in September through a competitive application process. A total of 29 state and local public health departments receive funding to implement 55 demonstration projects with the potential to serve as innovative approaches to influenza pandemic preparedness challenges.
- The PHEP program shifts from focus areas to public health-related roles, capabilities, critical tasks, and outcomes selected from the Department of Homeland Security (DHS) Target Capabilities List (TCL).
- CDC implements a PHEP evaluation framework to identify outputs and outcomes that demonstrate program accountability and improvement.
- In August 2007, CDC awards $175 million to PHEP recipients as part of the third phase of pandemic influenza supplemental funding. Recipients use the funding to address gaps identified in Phases I and II through the Homeland Security Exercise and Evaluation Program cycle of planning, training, and exercises.
- CDC awards to PHEP recipients the first two phases of $600 million in supplemental funding for state and local pandemic influenza preparedness. CDC awards $100 million in March 2006 to conduct statewide pandemic influenza preparedness summits, assess preparedness gaps, and develop approaches for filling the identified gaps. An additional $225 million is awarded in September 2006 to conduct exercises at the state and local levels, develop antiviral drug distribution plans, and review/update state pandemic influenza operations plans. As part of phase two funding, $24 million is designated to be awarded through a competitive application process to select recipients who propose to implement promising practices or novel approaches to seven pandemic influenza preparedness challenges.
- Congress passes authorization legislation, the Pandemic and All-Hazards Preparedness Act (PAHPA) (P.L. 109-417), in December to improve public health and hospital preparedness for bioterrorist attacks, pandemics, and other catastrophes. The legislation also authorizes the development of new medical countermeasures against biosecurity threats.
- PAHPA authorizations include the following public health preparedness goals:
- Disease situational awareness domestically and abroad, including detection, identification, and investigation
- Disease containment, including capabilities for isolation, quarantine, social distancing, and decontamination
- Risk communication and public preparedness
- Rapid distribution and administration of medical countermeasures
- In April, the Office of Terrorism Preparedness and Response (OTPER) becomes the Coordinating Office for Terrorism Preparedness and Emergency Response (COTPER) following a CDC reorganization. The bioterrorism preparedness program becomes part of COTPER’s newly established Division of State and Local Readiness (DSLR).
- In August, CDC releases a new five-year program announcement (AA154) to replace the expired bioterrorism program announcement. The agency renames the program the “Public Health Emergency Preparedness (PHEP) Program.” The program’s focus broadens to support public health preparedness for all hazards, including natural, biological, chemical, radiological, and nuclear events. Since the PHEP Program is a continuation of an existing program, participation is limited to the 62 entities funded under the bioterrorism program. CDC releases the PHEP Program announcement for five years, with approximately $862 million available to fund the first year.