Prostate Cancer Awareness
Men: Talk to your doctor before you decide to get tested or treated for prostate cancer.
The prostate is a walnut-sized organ located just below the bladder and in front of the rectum in men. It produces fluid that makes up a part of semen. The prostate gland surrounds the urethra (the tube that carries urine and semen through the penis and out of the body).
Prostate cancer is the most common non-skin cancer among American men. Prostate cancers usually grow slowly. Most men with prostate cancer are older than 65 years and do not die from the disease. Finding and treating prostate cancer before symptoms occur may not improve your health or help you live longer.
Men can have different symptoms for prostate cancer. Some men do not have symptoms at all. Some symptoms of prostate cancer are difficulty starting urination, frequent urination (especially at night), weak or interrupted flow of urine, and blood in the urine or semen.
There is no way to know for sure if you will get prostate cancer. The older a man is, the greater his risk for getting prostate cancer. Men also have a greater chance of getting prostate cancer if they are African-American or have a father, brother, or son who has had prostate cancer.
Two tests are commonly used to screen for prostate cancer—
- Digital rectal exam (DRE): A doctor or nurse inserts a gloved, lubricated finger into the rectum to estimate the size of the prostate and feel for lumps or other abnormalities.
- Prostate specific antigen (PSA) test: Measures the level of PSA in the blood. PSA is a substance made by the prostate. The levels of PSA in the blood can be higher in men who have prostate cancer. The PSA level may also be elevated in other conditions that affect the prostate.
Should You Get Screened?
CDC and other federal agencies follow the prostate cancer screening recommendations set forth by the U.S. Preventive Services Task Force, which recommends against prostate specific antigen (PSA)-based screening for men who do not have symptoms. Other organizations may have other recommendations.
A PSA test can find prostate cancer earlier than no screening at all. However, the PSA test may have false positive or false negative results. This can mean that men without cancer may have abnormal results and get tests that are not necessary. It could also mean that the test could miss cancer in men who may need to be treated. Talk to your doctor about the right decision for you.
- Prostate Cancer Screening (National Cancer Institute)
- Understanding Prostate Changes: A Health Guide for Men (National Cancer Institute)
- Screening for Prostate Cancer fact sheet [PDF-466KB] (U.S. Preventive Services Task Force)
Screening for Prostate Cancer [PDF-1MB] provides an overview of screening tests and treatment options.
Treating Localized Prostate Cancer: A Review of the Research for Adults [PDF-3.7MB] explains treatment options and common side effects.
This health tip sheet [PDF-163KB] explains prostate cancer screening and provides a list of questions to ask your doctor.