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Public health surveillance is the ongoing systematic collection, analysis, and interpretation of outcome-specific data for use in public health practice. The public health approach to problem solving includes using surveillance data to identify problems and assess the effectiveness of interventions. Without accurate and timely data, public health programs suffer. This glossary is available of commonly used terms in public health surveillance and epidemiology.

CDC's Division of Reproductive Health (DRH) monitors maternal and infant mortality, the most serious reproductive health complications. In addition, attention is focused on gathering data to better understand the extent of maternal and infant morbidity, adverse behaviors during pregnancy, and long-term consequences of pregnancy.

The major surveillance systems in the division include the Pregnancy Risk Assessment Monitoring System (PRAMS), the National ART Surveillance System (NASS), and the Pregnancy Mortality Surveillance System (PMSS). Reports are generated from these systems on a routine ongoing basis. DRH also monitors teen pregnancy and the number and characteristics of women obtaining legal induced abortions in the United States. Point-in-time surveys are conducted to assess reproductive health in developing countries. DRH researchers sometimes analyze secondary data on such topics as ectopic pregnancy and hysterectomy.

Data and Statistics Reference Links

CPONDER
A Web-based analysis system providing state-level prevalence and trend data on maternal and infant health indicators from the Pregnancy Risk Assessment Monitoring System (PRAMS).

Data.gov
Data.gov increases the ability of the public to easily find, download, and use datasets that are generated and held by the Federal Government. Data.gov provides descriptions of the federal datasets (metadata), information about how to access the datasets, and tools that leverage government datasets.

CDC WONDER
Wide-ranging Online Data for Epidemiologic Research—an easy-to-use, menu-driven system that makes the information resources of the CDC available to public health professionals and the public at large.

WISQARS (Web-based Injury Statistics Query and Reporting System)
This is an interactive database system that provides customized reports of injury-related data.

BRFSS
By the early 1980s, scientific research clearly showed that personal health behaviors played a major role in premature morbidity and mortality. Although national estimates of health risk behaviors among U.S. adult populations.

YRBSS
The YRBSS was developed in 1990 to monitor priority health risk behaviors that contribute markedly to the leading causes of death, disability, and social problems among youth and adults

PeriStats
PeriStats was developed by the March of Dimes Perinatal Data Center, PeriStats provides free access to federal, state, city, and county maternal and infant health data.

 

Abortion

Abortion Surveillance System FAQ's

Abortion Surveillance 2010
In 2010, 765,651 legal induced abortions were reported to CDC from 49 reporting areas. The abortion rate for 2010 was 14.6 abortions per 1,000 women aged 15–44 years and the abortion ratio was 228 abortions per 1,000 live births.

Compared with 2009, the total number and rate of reported abortions for 2010 decreased 3%. The abortion ratio was stable, changing only 0.4%. Additionally, from 2001 to 2010 the number, rate, and ratio of reported abortions decreased 9%, 10%, and 8%, respectively. Given the 3% decrease from 2009 to 2010 in the total number and rate of reported abortions, in combination with the 5% decrease that had occurred in the previous year, the overall decrease during the most recent 5-year period (2006–2010) was greater than the decrease during the previous 5-year period (2001–2005).

Women in their twenties accounted for the majority of abortions in 2010 and throughout the period of analysis. The majority of abortions in 2010 took place early in gestation: 91.9% of abortions were performed at ≤13 weeks’ gestation, and of the abortions performed at ≤13 weeks’ gestation, 71.7% were performed at ≤ 8 weeks’ gestation. In 2010, 17.7% of all abortions were medical abortions. Source: MMWR 2013;62(8).

Previous MMWR Abortion Surveillance Reports
2009 | 2008 | 2007 | 2006 | 2005 | 2004 | 2003 | 2002 | 2001 | 2000 | 1999 | 1998 | 1997 | 1996 | 1995 | 1994–1993 | 1992 | 1991 | 1990 | 1989 | 1988 | 1987–1986 | 1985–1984 | 1981 | 1980–1979

Abortions Distributed by State of Maternal Residence and State of Clinical Service.
[XLS - 69K] | [CSV - 11KB]

Assisted Reproductive Technology

2011 Assisted Reproductive Technology Fertility Clinic Success Rates Report and National Summary Report
The data for this national report comes from the 451 fertility clinics reporting in 2011 that provided and verified data on the outcomes of all ART cycles started at their clinics. The 163,039* ART cycles performed at these reporting clinics in 2011 resulted in 47,818 live births (deliveries of one or more living infants) and 61,610 infants. Data provided by U.S. fertility clinics that use ART to treat infertility is a rich source of information about the factors that contribute to a successful ART treatment—the delivery of a live-born infant.

The report has 3 major sections—

  • Commonly asked questions—provides background information and an explanation of the data reporting process.
  • Fertility clinic tables—displays tabulated results of success rates for ART procedures at individual U.S. fertility clinics.
  • Appendix—contains a glossary of technical and medical terms used in the report, the names and addresses of all reporting clinics, a list of non-reporting clinics, and a list of national consumer organizations offering support to people experiencing infertility.

The 2011 ART National Summary Report uses pooled data presented as graphs and charts to provide an in-depth picture of the type, number, and outcomes of ART cycles performed in the United States. The report will be available Winter 2014.

2011 ART Clinic Data, Data Dictionary, and the National Summary Data Set.

The ART data are also available on www.healthdata.gov. This provides instant view and download of datasets generated by the Executive Branch of the federal government. Healthdata.gov provides descriptions of the federal datasets (metadata), information about how to access the datasets, and tools that leverage government datasets.

Assisted Reproductive Technology Surveillance Summaries
2010 | 2009 | 2006| 2005 | 2004 | 2003 | 2002 | 2001 | 2000

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Hysterectomy

NCHS FastStats

Fact sheet: Hysterectomy in the United States, 2000–2004
In the United States, approximately 600,000 hysterectomies are performed each year, and the procedure is the second most frequently performed major surgical procedure among reproductive-aged women.

 

Infant Health

Preterm Births—United States, 2006 and 2010
Source: MMWR. 2013;62(03):136–138.

Infant Deaths—United States, 2005–2008
Source: MMWR. 2013;62(03):171–175.

National Vital Statistics System- New Data Releases

QuickStats: Infant Mortality Rates, by Race and Hispanic Ethnicity of Mother—United States, 2000, 2005, and 2009
Source: MMWR. 2013;62(05):90.

Births: Preliminary Data for 2011 [PDF - 311KB]
Comprehensive report on births and maternal health based on 100% of birth certificates reported in all 50 states, DC and U.S. territories.
Source: National Vital Statistics Reports. 2012;61:5.

QuickStats: Percentage of Births That Were Home Births, by Maternal Race/Ethnicity —United States, 1990–2009
Source: MMWR. 2012;61(03):58.

Infant Mortality Statistics From the 2008 Period Linked Birth/Infant Death Data Set [PDF - 495KB]
Source: National Vital Statistics Reports. 2012;61:5.

Behind International Rankings of Infant Mortality: How the United States Compares with Europe
Source: NCHS Data Brief. 2009;23.

Infant Deaths— United States, 2000–2007
Source: MMWR. 2011;60(01);49–51.

QuickStats: Infant Mortality Rates, by Mother's Place of Birth and Race/Ethnicity—United States, 2007
Source: MMWR. 2011;60(26):891.

Preterm Births—United States, 2007
Source: MMWR. 2011;60(01):78–79.

Born a Bit Too Early: Recent Trends in Late Preterm Births
According to this report from CDC's National Center for Health Statistics (NCHS), the percentage of babies born preterm in the U.S. has increased by more than 20% between 1990 and 2006. Most of this increase was among babies born toward the end of the preterm period, at 34 to 36 full weeks of pregnancy, or during the period known as “late preterm.”
Source: NCHS Data Brief. 2009;24.

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International Reproductive Health Surveys

Reproductive health surveys collect data on maternal and infant health in developing countries.

 

Maternal Health and Pregnancy

Core State Preconception Health Indicators—Pregnancy Risk Assessment Monitoring System and Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System, 2009.
Source: MMWR 2014;63(ss03):1-62.

Pregnancy Rates for U.S. Women Continue to Drop
Source: NCHS data brief, no 136. Hyattsville, MD: National Center for Health Statistics. 2013.

Pregnancy and Childbirth Among Females Aged 10–19 Years— United States, 2007–2010
Source: MMWR 2013;62(03):71–76.

QuickStats: Birth Rates Among Women Aged 15–44 Years, by Maternal Age Group—National Vital Statistics System, United States, 1961, 2007, and 2011.
Source: MMWR 2012;61(47):978.

Pregnancy-related Mortality in the United States
A pregnancy-related death is defined as the death of a woman while pregnant or within one year of pregnancy termination regardless of the duration or site of the pregnancy, from any cause related to or aggravated by the pregnancy or its management, but not from accidental or incidental causes. CDC’s Pregnancy Mortality Surveillance System uses data from 52 U.S. reporting areas to identify and describe rates and causes of pregnancy-related death.

Estimated Pregnancy Rates and Rates of Pregnancy Outcomes for the United States, 1990–2008 [PDF - 463KB]
This report from the National Center for Health Statistics presents revised pregnancy rates for 2000–2005 and new rates for 2006–2008 for U.S. women through age 44.Rates are also presented for pregnancy outcomes (live birth, induced abortion, and fetal loss), by age, race, and Hispanic origin, and by marital status.
Source: National Vital Statistics Reports. 2012;60(7).

Recent Trends in Cesarean Delivery in the United States
Source: NCHS Data Briefs. 2010;35.

Seasonal Influenza and 2009 H1N1 Influenza Vaccination Coverage Among Pregnant Women—10 States, 2009–2010 Influenza Season
Source: MMWR. 2010;59(47):1541–1545.

Receipt of Influenza Vaccine During Pregnancy Among Women With Live Births—Georgia and Rhode Island, 2004–2007
Pregnant women are at increased risk for complications from influenza. Since 2004, the Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices (ACIP) and American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists (ACOG) Committee on Obstetric Practice have recommended that all pregnant women be vaccinated with the trivalent inactivated vaccine during any trimester of pregnancy.
Source: MMWR. 2009;58(35):972–975.

Preconception and Interconception Health Status of Women Who Recently Gave Birth to a Live-Born Infant—Pregnancy Risk Assessment Monitoring System (PRAMS), United States, 26 Reporting Areas, 2004
Source: MMWR. 2007;56(SS10):1–35.

 

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Teen Pregnancy

QuickStats: Birth Rates for Females Aged 15–19 Years, by Race/Ethnicity — National Vital Statistics System, United States, 1991–2013
Source: MMWR 2014;63:609

QuickStats: Rates of Pregnancies and Pregnancy Outcomes Among Teens Aged 15–19 Years, by Race/Ethnicity — United States, 2009.
Source: MMWR. 2013;62(48):989–989.

QuickStats: Birth Rates for Females Aged 15–19 Years, by Race/Ethnicity—National Vital Statistics System, United States, 2007 and 2011
Source: MMWR. 2012;61(42):865.

Birth Rates for U.S. Teenagers Reach Historic Lows for All Age and Ethnic Groups
Source:NCHS Data Brief. 2012;89.

QuickStats: Birth Rates for Teens Aged 15–19 Years, by Age Group—National Vital Statistics System, United States, 1960–2010.
Source: MMWR. 2012;61(18):330.

Prepregnancy Contraceptive Use Among Teens with Unintended Pregnancies Resulting in Live Births—Pregnancy Risk Assessment Monitoring System (PRAMS), 2004–2008.
Source: MMWR. 2012;61(02):25–29.

QuickStats: Percentage of Teens Aged 15–19 Years Who Had Opposite-Sex Sexual Partners in the Past 12 Months, by Number of Partners—United States, 2006–2010.
Source: MMWR. 2011;60(42):1460.

Vital Signs: Teen Pregnancy—United States, 1991–2009
Source: MMWR. 2011;60:1–8.

QuickStats: Birth Rates for Teens Aged 15–19 Years, by State—United States, 2009.
Source: MMWR. 2011;60(06):183.

State Disparities in Teenage Birth Rates in the United States
Source: State Disparities in Teenage Birth Rates in the United States. NCHS data brief. 2010(46).

QuickStats: Never-Married Females and Males Aged 15–19 Years Who Have Ever Had Sexual Intercourse—National Survey of Family Growth, United States, 1988–2008
Source: MMWR. 2010;59(26):19.

Teen Birth Rates Rose Again in 2007, Declined in 2008.

National Vital Statistics System: Birth Data
Source: National Vital Statistics Reports.

Sexual and Reproductive Health of Persons Aged 10–24 Years—United States, 2002–2007 [PDF - 1.44MB]
Source: MMWR. 2009;58(SS-6).

QuickStats: Birth Rates for Teens Aged 15–19 Years, by Age Group—United States, 1985–2007
Source: MMWR. 2009; 58(12):313.

Teenagers in the United States: Sexual Activity, Contraceptive Use, and Childbearing, 2002. [PDF - 710 KB]
Source: Vital and Health Statistics. Series No. 23, Volume 24.

Estimated Pregnancy Rates for the United States, 1990–2005: An Update (10/2009) [PDF – 1 MB]
Source: National Vital Statistics Report. 2009;58(4). 

Youth Risk Behavior Surveillance—United States 2007
Source: MMWR. 2008;57(SS-4):1–131.

Contraceptive use and Pregnancy Risk among US High School Students, 1991–2003
Source: Guttmacher Institute Perspectives of Sexual and Reproductive Health. 2006;8(2):106–111.

Trends in HIV- and STD-Related Risk Behaviors Among High School Students United States, 1991–2007
Source: MMWR. 57(30).

National Campaign to Prevent Teen and Unplanned Pregnancy: State Data
National and state information, including data on teens and young adults, trend data, demographic data, and unplanned pregnancy and birth data.

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Tobacco Use and Pregnancy

Trends in Smoking Before, During, and After Pregnancy —Pregnancy Risk Assessment Monitoring System (PRAMS), United States, 31 Sites, 2000–2005
For 16 sites for which data were available for the entire 6-year study period, the prevalence of smoking before pregnancy remained unchanged, with approximately one of five women (from 22.3% in 2000 to 21.5% in 2005) reporting smoking before pregnancy. The prevalence of smoking during pregnancy declined from 15.2% in 2000 to 13.8% in 2005, and the prevalence of smoking after delivery declined from 18.1% in 2000 to 16.4% in 2005.
Source: MMWR. 2009;58(SS04):1–29.

Smoking-Attributable Mortality, Years of Potential Life Lost, and Productivity Losses —United States, 2000–2004.
During 2000–2004, smoking resulted in an estimated annual average of 269,655 deaths among males and 173,940 deaths among females in the United States. Smoking during pregnancy resulted in an estimated 776 infant deaths annually during 2000—2004.
Source: MMWR. 2008;57(45):1226–1228.

Smoking Prevalence Among Women of Reproductive Age—United States, 2006.
CDC analyzed state-specific prevalence of smoking and attempts to quit among women of reproductive age, using 2006 data from the Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System (BRFSS). Median state prevalence of current smoking was 22.4% (range: 5.8% [U.S. Virgin Islands]—34.7% [Kentucky]).
Source: MMWR. 2008;57(31):849–852.

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Unintended Pregnancy

Use of Contraception in the United States: 1982–2008. [PDF - 1.5 MB]
Source: Vital Health Stat. 2010;23(29).

Sexual and Reproductive Health of Persons Aged 10–24 Years—United States, 2002–2007. [PDF - 1.45MB]
Source: MMWR. 2009;58(SS-6).

Fertility, Family Planning, and Reproductive Health of U.S. Women: Data From the 2002 National Survey of Family Growth. [PDF - 4.8MB]
Source: National Vital Statistics System
. 2005;23(25).

Estimated Pregnancy Rates for the United States, 1990–2005: An Update. (10/2009) [PDF – 1 MB]
Source: National Vital Statistics Report. 2009;58(4).

Comparability of contraceptive prevalence etimates for women from the 2002 Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System.
Source: Public Health Reports. 2008;123(2):147–154.

Pregnancy intention and contraceptive use among adult women.
Source: Matern Child Health J. 2007;11(4):347–351.  

Contraceptive Use—United States and Territories, Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System, 2002.
In the United States, approximately half of all pregnancies are unintended. Contraceptive use is an important determinant of such pregnancies. To characterize contraceptive use in the United States and its territories, the Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System (BRFSS), for the first time, asked both men and women about their birth-control use for the prevention of pregnancy during 2002.
Source: MMWR. 2005;54(SS06):1–72.

Surgical Sterilization in the United States: Prevalence and Characteristics, 1965–1995 [PDF - 289KB]
This report presents national data on the prevalence of surgical sterilization from 1965 to 1995 among women aged 15–44 years of age. Data are shown by type of sterilizing operation and demographic characteristics of the women. For the 1994 survey data, reasons for the three most common sterilizing operations (tubal ligation, vasectomy, and hysterectomy) are shown, as well as the desire for reversal among those with potentially reversible operations.
Source: National Vital and Health Statistics Series. 1998;23/No.20.

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Women's Reproductive Health

Women’s Health USA 2010
This data book was developed by the Health Resources and Services Administration (HRSA) to provide readers with an easy-to-use collection of current and historical data on some of the most pressing health challenges facing women, their families, and their communities. Women’s Health USA 2010 is intended to be a concise reference for policymakers and program managers at the federal, state, and local levels to identify and clarify issues affecting the health of women.

Preconception and Interconception Health Status of Women Who Recently Gave Birth to a Live-Born Infant—Pregnancy Risk Assessment Monitoring System (PRAMS), United States, 26 Reporting Areas, 2004
Source: MMWR. 2007;56(SS10):1–35.

QuickStats: Annual Rate of Visits to Office-Based Physicians and Hospital Outpatient Departments During Which Combination Estrogen-Progestin Hormone Therapy Was Prescribed for Women Aged >40 years, by Age Group—United States, 2001–2003
Source: MMWR. 2006,55(38):1047.

Women's Health and Mortality Chartbook 
The Women’s Health and Mortality Chartbook is a statistical resource on women’s health in each of the states, the District of Columbia, Guam, Puerto Rico and the U.S. Virgin Islands. The chartbook was developed to provide readers with an easy-to-use collection of current jurisdiction data on critical issues of relevance to women. A total of 28 different health indicators are featured, which highlight some of the key issues related to women’s health that are being measured regularly at the state level.

 
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