Malaria Information and Prophylaxis, by Country1 [L]
|Country||Areas with Malaria||Estimated relative risk of Malaria for US Travelers2||Drug Resistance3||Malaria Species4||Recommended Chemoprophlaxis5||Helpful links for Select Countries|
|Laos||All, except none in the city of Vientiane.||Very Low||Chloroquine
|P. falciparum 95%
P. vivax 4%
P. malariae and P. ovale 1%
|Along the Laos-Burma border in the provinces of Bokeo and Louang Namtha and along the Laos-Thailand border in the province of Saravane and Champassack: Atovaquone/proguanil or doxycycline
All other areas with malaria: Atovaquone/proguanil, doxycycline, or mefloquine
|Latvia||None||None||Not Applicable||Not Applicable||Not Applicable|
|Lebanon||None||None||Not Applicable||Not Applicable||Not Applicable|
|Lesotho||None||None||Not Applicable||Not Applicable||Not Applicable|
|Liberia||All||High||Chloroquine||P. falciparum 85%
P. ovale 5-10%
P. vivax rare
|Atovaquone/ proguanil, doxycycline, or mefloquine|
|Libya||None||None||Not Applicable||Not Applicable||Not Applicable|
|Liechtenstein||None||None||Not Applicable||Not Applicable||Not Applicable|
|Lithuania||None||None||Not Applicable||Not Applicable||Not Applicable|
|Luxembourg||None||None||Not Applicable||Not Applicable||Not Applicable|
- The information presented herein was accurate at the time of publication; however, factors that can change rapidly and from year to year, such as local weather conditions, mosquito vector density, and prevalence of infection, can markedly affect local malaria transmission patterns. Updated information may be found on the CDC Travelers' Health website at www.cdc.gov/travel.
- This estimate of risk is based on numbers of cases of malaria reported in US travelers and the estimated volume of travel to these countries. In some instances the risk may be low because the actual intensity of transmission is low in that country. In other instances, significant malaria transmission may occur only in small focal areas of the country where US travelers seldom go. Thus even though the risk for the average traveler to that country may be low, the risk for the rare traveler going to the areas with higher transmission intensity will of course be higher. For some countries that are rarely visited by US travelers, there is insufficient information to make a risk estimate.
- Refers to P. falciparum malaria unless otherwise noted.
- Estimates of malaria species are based on best available data from multiple sources.
- Several medications are available for chemoprophylaxis. When deciding which drug to use, consider specific itinerary, length of trip, cost of drug, previous adverse reactions to antimalarials, drug allergies, and current medical history. All travelers should seek medical attention in the event of fever during or after return from travel to areas with malaria.
- This risk estimate is based largely on cases occurring in US military personnel who travel for extended periods of time with unique itineraries that likely do not reflect the risk for the average US traveler.
- Primaquine can cause hemolytic anemia in persons with glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD) deficiency. Patients must be screened for G6PD deficiency prior to starting primaquine.