Malaria Information and Prophylaxis, by Country [V]
|Country||Areas with Malaria||Estimated relative risk of Malaria for US Travelers2||Drug Resistance3||Malaria Species4||Recommended Chemoprophlaxis5||Key Information Needed and Helpful Links to Assess Need for Prophylaxis for Select Countries|
|Vanuatu||All||Moderate||Chloroquine||P. falciparum 60%|
P. vivax 35-40%
P. ovale <1%
|Atovaquone-proguanil, doxycycline, or mefloquine|
|Venezuela||Present in the following states: Amazonas, one municipality in Apure (Pedro Camejo), Bolivar, Delta Amacuro, Monagas, Sucre, and two municipalities in Zulia (Jesus M. Semprum, Machiques de Perija). Few cases in the following states: Anzoategui, other parts of Apure, Barinas, Guarico, Miranda, Monagas, Marcano municipality in Margarita Island of Nueva Esparta, Portuguesa, Tachira,and other parts of Zulia. Present in Angel Falls. None in the cities of Caracas, La Asuncion, Maracaibo, and other parts of Margarita Island.||Low||Chloroquine||P. vivax 83%|
P. falciparum 17%
For the states of Amazonas, one municipality in Apure (Pedro Camejo), Bolivar, Delta Amacuro, Monagas, Sucre, and two municipalities in Zulia (Jesus M. Semprum, Machiques de Perija):
All other areas with malaria:
1) City(ies) of travel
|Vietnam||Rural areas only. Rare cases in the Mekong Delta. None in in Da Nang, Haiphong, Hanoi, Ho Chi Minh City (Saigon), Nha Trang, Qui Nhon, and the Red River Delta.||Low||Chloroquine|
|P. falciparum 50-90%|
Remainder P. vivax
|Southern part of the country in the provinces of Dac Lac, Gia Lai, Khanh Hoa, Kon Tum, Lam Dong, Ninh Thuan, Song Be, Tay Ninh: Atovaquone-proguanil or doxycycline|
Other areas with malaria except Mekong Delta: Atovaquone-proguanil, doxycycline or mefloquine
Mekong Delta: Mosquito avoidance only
1) City(ies) of travel
|Virgin Islands, British||None||None||Not Applicable||Not Applicable||Not Applicable|
|Virgin Islands, U.S.||None||None||Not Applicable||Not Applicable||Not Applicable|
- The information presented herein was accurate at the time of publication; however, factors that can change rapidly and from year to year, such as local weather conditions, mosquito vector density, and prevalence of infection, can markedly affect local malaria transmission patterns.
- This estimate of risk is based on numbers of cases of malaria reported in US travelers and the estimated volume of travel to these countries. In some instances the risk may be low because the actual intensity of transmission is low in that country. In other instances, significant malaria transmission may occur only in small focal areas of the country where US travelers seldom go. Thus even though the risk for the average traveler to that country may be low, the risk for the rare traveler going to the areas with higher transmission intensity will of course be higher. For some countries that are rarely visited by US travelers, there is insufficient information to make a risk estimate.
- Refers to P. falciparum malaria unless otherwise noted.
- Estimates of malaria species are based on best available data from multiple sources.
- Several medications are available for chemoprophylaxis. When deciding which drug to use, consider specific itinerary, length of trip, cost of drug, previous adverse reactions to antimalarials, drug allergies, and current medical history. All travelers should seek medical attention in the event of fever during or after return from travel to areas with malaria.
- This risk estimate is based largely on cases occurring in US military personnel who travel for extended periods of time with unique itineraries that likely do not reflect the risk for the average US traveler.
- Primaquine can cause hemolytic anemia in persons with glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD) deficiency. Patients must be screened for G6PD deficiency prior to starting primaquine.