Malaria Information and Prophylaxis, by Country [E]
|Country||Areas with Malaria||Estimated relative risk of Malaria for US Travelers2||Drug Resistance3||Malaria Species4||Recommended Chemoprophlaxis5||Helpful links for Select Countries|
|Easter Island (Chile)||None||None||Not Applicable||Not Applicable||Not Applicable|
|Ecuador; Including the Galápagos Islands||All areas at altitudes below 1,500 m (4,921 ft). Not present in the cities of Guayaquil, Quito, or the Galápagos Islands.||Low||Chloroquine||P. vivax 90%|
P. falciparum 10%
|Atovaquone-proguanil, doxycycline, mefloquine, or primaquine7||Altitude information for Ecuador|
|Egypt||Locally transmitted cases in Aswan Governorate (updated June 2014)||Very Low||None||P. vivax||Mosquito avoidance only||Locator map of the Aswan Governorate in Egypt|
|El Salvador||Rare cases along the Guatemalan border.||Very Low||None||P. vivax 99%|
P. falciparum <1%
|Mosquito avoidance only||The World Factbook: El Salvador|
|Equatorial Guinea||All||High||Chloroquine||P. falciparum 85%|
P. malariae, P. ovale, and P. vivax 15% combined
|Atovaquone-proguanil, doxycycline, or mefloquine|
|Eritrea||All areas at altitudes below 2,200 m (7,218 ft). None in Asmara.||No data||Chloroquine||P. falciparum 85%|
P. vivax 10-15% P. ovale rare
|Atovaquone-proguanil, doxycycline, or mefloquine||Altitude information for Eritrea|
|Estonia||None||None||Not Applicable||Not Applicable||Not Applicable|
|Ethiopia||All areas at altitudes below 2,500 m (8,202 ft) except none in Addis Ababa.||Moderate||Chloroquine||P. falciparum 60-70%|
P. vivax 30-40%
P. malariae, P. ovale rare
|Atovaquone-proguanil, doxycycline, or mefloquine||Altitude information for Ethiopia|
- The information presented herein was accurate at the time of publication; however, factors that can change rapidly and from year to year, such as local weather conditions, mosquito vector density, and prevalence of infection, can markedly affect local malaria transmission patterns.
- This estimate of risk is based on numbers of cases of malaria reported in US travelers and the estimated volume of travel to these countries. In some instances the risk may be low because the actual intensity of transmission is low in that country. In other instances, significant malaria transmission may occur only in small focal areas of the country where US travelers seldom go. Thus even though the risk for the average traveler to that country may be low, the risk for the rare traveler going to the areas with higher transmission intensity will of course be higher. For some countries that are rarely visited by US travelers, there is insufficient information to make a risk estimate.
- Refers to P. falciparum malaria unless otherwise noted.
- Estimates of malaria species are based on best available data from multiple sources.
- Several medications are available for chemoprophylaxis. When deciding which drug to use, consider specific itinerary, length of trip, cost of drug, previous adverse reactions to antimalarials, drug allergies, and current medical history. All travelers should seek medical attention in the event of fever during or after return from travel to areas with malaria.
- This risk estimate is based largely on cases occurring in US military personnel who travel for extended periods of time with unique itineraries that likely do not reflect the risk for the average US traveler.
- Primaquine can cause hemolytic anemia in persons with glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD) deficiency. Patients must be screened for G6PD deficiency prior to starting primaquine.