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Malaria Information and Prophylaxis, by Country [P]

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Country Areas with Malaria Estimated relative risk of Malaria for US Travelers2 Drug Resistance3 Malaria Species4 Recommended Chemoprophlaxis5 Key Information Needed and Helpful Links to Assess Need for Prophylaxis for Select Countries
Pakistan All areas (including all cities) at altitudes below 2,500 m (8,202 ft) Moderate Chloroquine P. vivax 70%
P. falciparum 30%
Atovaquone-proguanil, doxycycline, or mefloquine
Palau None None Not Applicable Not Applicable Not Applicable
Panama Transmission occurs primarily in the provinces east of the Panama Canal and C. Ngobe Bugle.  Rare cases in the provinces of Bocas del Toro, Colon, and Veraguas.  None in the provinces of Cocle, Chiriqui, Herrera, Los Santos, San Miguelito, and the part of  Panama Province west of the canal. None in the city of Panama. Low Chloroquine (east of the Panama Canal) P. vivax 99%
P. falciparum 1%

Provinces east of the Panama Canal: Atovaquone-proguanil, doxycycline, mefloquine, or primaquine7

C. Ngobe Bugle:
Atovaquone-proguanil, chloroquine, doxycycline, mefloquine, or primaquine7

Other areas with malaria: Mosquito avoidance only

Papua New Guinea Present throughout country at altitudes below 2,000 m (6,562 ft) High Chloroquine (both P. falciparum and P. vivax) P. falciparum 65-80%
P. vivax 10-30%
remainder P. malariae and P. ovale
Atovaquone-proguanil, doxycycline, or mefloquine
Paraguay Rare cases in the departments of Alto Paraná, Caaguazú, and Canendiyú. Very Low None P. vivax 95%
P. falciparum 5%
Mosquito avoidance only
Peru All departments <2,000 m (6,561 ft), including the cities of Iquitos and Puerto Maldonado, and only the remote eastern regions of La Libertad and Lambayeque. None in the following areas: Lima province; the cities of Arequipa, Ica, Moquegua, Nazca, Puno, and Tacna; the highland tourist areas (Cuzco, Machu Picchu, and Lake Titicaca); and along the Pacific Coast. Low Chloroquine P. vivax 85%
P. falciparum 15%
Atovaquone-proguanil, doxycycline, or mefloquine
Philippines Present in rural areas below 600 m (1,969 ft) on islands of Basilan, Luzon, Mindanao, Mindoro, Palawan, Sulu (Jolo), and Tawi-Tawi. None in Manila and other urban areas. Low Chloroquine P. falciparum 70-80%
P. vivax 20-30%
Atovaquone-proguanil, doxycycline, or mefloquine
Pitcairn Islands (U.K.) None None Not Applicable Not Applicable Not Applicable
Poland None None Not Applicable Not Applicable Not Applicable
Portugal None None Not Applicable Not Applicable Not Applicable
Puerto Rico (U.S.) None None Not Applicable Not Applicable Not Applicable
  1. The information presented herein was accurate at the time of publication; however, factors that can change rapidly and from year to year, such as local weather conditions, mosquito vector density, and prevalence of infection, can markedly affect local malaria transmission patterns.
  2. This estimate of risk is based on numbers of cases of malaria reported in US travelers and the estimated volume of travel to these countries. In some instances the risk may be low because the actual intensity of transmission is low in that country. In other instances, significant malaria transmission may occur only in small focal areas of the country where US travelers seldom go. Thus even though the risk for the average traveler to that country may be low, the risk for the rare traveler going to the areas with higher transmission intensity will of course be higher. For some countries that are rarely visited by US travelers, there is insufficient information to make a risk estimate.
  3. Refers to P. falciparum malaria unless otherwise noted.
  4. Estimates of malaria species are based on best available data from multiple sources.
  5. Several medications are available for chemoprophylaxis. When deciding which drug to use, consider specific itinerary, length of trip, cost of drug, previous adverse reactions to antimalarials, drug allergies, and current medical history. All travelers should seek medical attention in the event of fever during or after return from travel to areas with malaria.
  6. This risk estimate is based largely on cases occurring in US military personnel who travel for extended periods of time with unique itineraries that likely do not reflect the risk for the average US traveler.
  7. Primaquine can cause hemolytic anemia in persons with glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD) deficiency. Patients must be screened for G6PD deficiency prior to starting primaquine.

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