ACIP Recommendations

The ACIP develops recommendations on how to use vaccines to control disease in the United States.

The Committee’s recommendations are forwarded to CDC’s Director for approval. Once the ACIP recommendations have been reviewed and approved by the CDC Director and the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, they are published in CDC’s Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report (MMWR). The MMWR publication represents the final and official CDC recommendations for immunization of the U.S. population.

Professional organizations that work with the ACIP to develop the annual childhood and adult schedules include the American Academy of Pediatrics (AAP), the American Academy of Family Physicians (AAFP), the American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists (ACOG), and the American College of Physicians (ACP).

February 2020 Meeting Recommendations

ACIP approved the following recommendations by majority vote at its February 2020 meeting.

Pre-exposure vaccination with rVSVΔG-ZEBOV-GP vaccine is recommended for adults 18 years of age or older in the United States population who are at potential risk of exposure to Ebola vaccine (species Zaire ebolavirus) because they:

  • Are responding to an outbreak of Ebola virus disease; or
  • Work as healthcare personnel at a federally-designated Ebola Treatment Center in the United States; or
  • Work as laboratorians or other staff at biosafety-level 4 facilities in the United States.

These recommendations have been adopted by the CDC Director and will become official once published in MMWR.

[1] Healthcare personnel (HCP) refers to all paid and unpaid persons serving in healthcare settings who have the potential for direct or indirect exposure to patients or infectious materials, including body substances (e.g., blood, tissue, and specific body fluids); contaminated medical supplies, devices, and equipment; contaminated environmental surfaces; or contaminated air. These HCP include, but are not limited to, emergency medical service personnel, nurses, nursing assistants, physicians, technicians, clinical laboratory personnel, autopsy personnel, therapists, phlebotomists, pharmacists, students and trainees, contractual staff not employed by the healthcare facility, and persons not directly involved in patient care, but who could be exposed to infectious agents that can be transmitted in the healthcare setting (e.g., clerical, dietary, environmental services, laundry, security, engineering and facilities management, administrative, billing, and volunteer personnel).

October 2019 Meeting Recommendations

ACIP approved the following recommendations by majority vote at its October 2019 meeting.

  • Either Td or Tdap vaccine can be used in the following situations when previously only Td was recommended (new language italicized):
    • Decennial booster dose: “To ensure continued protection against tetanus and diphtheria, booster doses of either Td or Tdap should be administered every 10 years throughout life.”
    • Tetanus prophylaxis for wound management: “For nonpregnant persons with documentation of previous vaccination with Tdap, either Td or Tdap should be used if a tetanus toxoid-containing vaccine is indicated.”
    • Catch-up immunization:
      • “Persons aged (7–18 years and ≥19 years) who have never been vaccinated against pertussis, tetanus, or diphtheria should receive a series of three tetanus and diphtheria toxoid-containing vaccines, which includes at least 1 dose of Tdap. The preferred schedule is a dose of Tdap, followed by a dose of either Td or Tdap at least 4 weeks afterward and another dose of either Td or Tdap 6 to 12 months later.
      • Persons aged (7–18 years and ≥19 years) who are not fully immunized against tetanus and diphtheria should receive 1 dose of Tdap (preferably the first) in the catch-up series; if additional tetanus toxoid–containing doses are required, either Td or Tdap vaccine can be used.”
    • Prevention of neonatal and obstetric tetanus: “If more than one dose of a tetanus-toxoid containing vaccine is needed, either Td or Tdap vaccine can be used for those doses.”
  • The Recommended Child and Adolescent Immunization Schedule, United States, 2020, for ages 18 years or younger.
  • The Recommended Adult Immunization Schedule, United States, 2020, for ages 19 years and older.

These recommendations have been adopted by the CDC Director and will become official once published in MMWR.

June 2019 Meeting Recommendations

ACIP approved the following recommendations by majority vote at its June 2019 meeting:

  • Human Papillomavirus (HPV) Vaccine
    • ACIP recommends catch-up vaccination for persons through age 26 years who are not adequately vaccinated
    • ACIP recommends vaccination based on shared clinical decision making for individuals aged 27 through 45 years who are not adequately vaccinated. HPV vaccines are not licensed for use in adults older than age 45 years
  • Pneumococcal Vaccines
    • ACIP recommends PCV13 based on shared clinical decision making for adults 65 years or older who do not have an immunocompromising condition and who have not previously received PCV13. All adults 65 years or older should receive a dose of PPSV23.
  • Influenza Vaccines
    • ACIP recommends annual influenza vaccination is recommended for all persons aged 6 months and older who do not have contraindications.
  • Hepatitis A Vaccines
    • ACIP recommends that all children and adolescents aged 2 through 18 years who have not previously received Hepatitis A vaccine be vaccinated routinely at any age (i.e., children and adolescents are recommended for catch-up vaccination).
    • ACIP recommends all persons with HIV aged ≥1 year be routinely vaccinated with Hepatitis A vaccine.
  • Serogroup B Meningococcal (MenB) Vaccines
    • For persons aged ≥10 years with complement deficiency, complement inhibitor use, asplenia, or who are microbiologists:
      • ACIP recommends a MenB booster dose 1 year following completion of a MenB primary series followed by MenB booster doses every 2-3 years thereafter, for as long as increased risk remains.
    • For persons aged ≥10 years determined by public health officials to be at increased risk during an outbreak:
      • ACIP recommends a one-time booster dose if it has been ≥1 year since completion of a MenB primary series.
      • A booster dose interval of ≥6 months may be considered by public health officials depending on the specific outbreak, vaccination strategy, and projected duration of elevated risk.

These recommendations have been adopted by the CDC Director and will become official once published in MMWR.

Page last reviewed: March 24, 2020