ACIP Work Groups

ACIP uses subgroups of the Committee, known as Work Groups, to review relevant published and unpublished data and develop recommendation options for presentation to the ACIP. The goal of ACIP Work Groups is to increase the effectiveness of ACIP.

ACIP Work Groups are responsible for collection, analysis, and preparation of information for presentation, discussion, deliberation, and vote by the ACIP in an open public forum. Work Groups review specific topics in detail and clarify issues in a way that helps ACIP voting members make informed and efficient decisions, with the best and most current information available.

Three Work Groups—the Combined Child/Adolescent and Adult Immunization Schedules, General Best Practices, and Influenza Vaccines Work Groups—are permanent. The remaining Work Groups are task oriented. These task-oriented Work Groups are developed in response to specific needs and are disbanded when the task at hand has been completed.

The following Work Groups are currently active (click on the name of each Work Group for more information): (Updated 11/29/2022)

Combined Child/Adolescent and Adult Immunization Schedule

  • Work Group Purpose: The Combined Child/Adolescent and Adult Immunization Schedule Work Group edits and maintains the annual child/adolescent and adult immunization schedule documents. The child/adolescent immunization schedule summarizes the ACIP vaccination recommendations for persons 18 years of age and younger, and the adult immunization schedule summarizes the ACIP vaccination recommendations for persons 19 years of age and older.
  • Topics under discussion by the Work Group: The products of this work group do not establish new vaccine recommendations; the work group documents reflect existing ACIP recommendations.
  • Work Group activities:
    • Publication of the annual child/adolescent and adult immunization schedules
  • Work Group Co-Leads: Patricia Wodi and Neil Murthy
  • Work Group Chair: Sybil Cineas

General Best Practices

  • Work Group Purpose: The General Best Practices Work Group revises the ACIP General Best Practice Guidelines for Immunization on an ongoing basis. The General Best Practices Work Group also addresses emergent issues that do not clearly belong to one of the other task-oriented Work Groups.
  • Topics under discussion by the Work Group:
    • Revaccination following hematopoietic stem cell transplants (HSCT)
  • Work Group activities:
  • Work Group Lead: Andrew Kroger
  • Work Group Chair: Lynn Bahta

Influenza Vaccines

  • Work Group Purpose: The Influenza Vaccine Work Group discusses the annual seasonal influenza vaccination recommendations and develops policy options for ACIP’s consideration. The Work Group reviews data and literature related to influenza vaccine efficacy, effectiveness, and safety.  Data concerning new licensures and licensure changes are also discussed.
  • Topics under discussion by the Work Group:
    • Assessment of specific influenza vaccines in specific populations (e.g., based upon age, risk factors for severe illness, susceptibility to adverse events)
    • Timing of vaccination
    • Vaccination during pregnancy
    • Evidence assessment and policy development for new vaccines
    • Effectiveness and safety of different influenza vaccines relative to one another
  • Work Group activities:
    • Ongoing discussions of vaccine effectiveness (VE)
    • Ongoing discussions of vaccine safety
    • Discussion of new licensures and licensure changes as relevant
  • Work Group Lead: Lisa Grohskopf
  • Work Group Chair: Keipp Talbot

Chikungunya Vaccines

  • Work Group Purpose: The Chikungunya Vaccines Work Group reviews and evaluates data on chikungunya disease, epidemiology, and vaccines and develops policy options for ACIP’s consideration.
  • Topics under discussion by the Work Group:
    • Use of chikungunya vaccine in U.S. persons at risk of chikungunya, including those who travel abroad and residents of U.S. territories and states with, or at risk of, transmission.
  • Work Group activities:
    • Review information on chikungunya disease, including outcomes
    • Review data on chikungunya epidemiology and burden among U.S. residents, including travelers and persons living in areas at risk for local transmission
    • Review data on safety, immunogenicity, and effectiveness of chikungunya vaccines
    • Provide evidence-based recommendation options for ACIP
    • Identify areas in need of further research for informing potential future vaccine recommendations
    • Publish chikungunya vaccine MMWR Recommendations and Reports document
  • Work Group Lead: Susan Hills
  • Work Group Chair: Beth Bell

COVID-19 Vaccines

  • Work group purpose: To review available data to inform COVID-19 vaccine policy, including recommendations for use of COVID-19 vaccines in the US population.
  • Topics under discussion by the work group:
    • Use of COVID-19 vaccines in the U.S. population
  • Work group activities:
    • Review safety, efficacy and immunogenicity data for COVID-19 vaccines, particularly in vaccine candidates authorized, approved, or in clinical trials in the US.
    • Review the epidemiology of COVID-19 disease
    • Assess benefit-risk balance for use of COVID-19 vaccines
    • Identify areas where additional data are needed to inform COVID-19 vaccine recommendations
    • Develop COVID-19 vaccine policy options
  • Work Group Lead: Sara Oliver
  • Work Group Chair: Matthew Daley

COVID-19 Vaccines Safety Technical Work Group (VaST)

  • Work group purpose: The ACIP COVID-19 Vaccines Safety Technical Work Group (VaST) was established to review, evaluate, and interpret pre-authorization/approval vaccine safety data and post-authorization/approval COVID-19 vaccine safety data as they become available following COVID-19 vaccine program implementation, and through the ACIP advise the CDC on safety monitoring and public communication of vaccine safety information. Nine independent expert consultants make up this group along with members from other federal agencies and organizations. The group conducts independent, rapid reviews of available safety monitoring data for the U.S. COVID-19 vaccination program and provides summaries of their findings to the ACIP.
  • Work group activities:
    • Review, evaluate, and interpret post-authorization/approval COVID-19 vaccination safety data
    • Serve as the central hub for technical subject matter expertise from federal agencies conducting post-authorization/approval safety monitoring
    • Advise on analyses, interpretation, and presentation of vaccine safety data
    • Provide updates to the ACIP COVID-19 Vaccines Work Group and the entire ACIP on COVID-19 vaccine safety
  • Work Group Co-Leads: Lauri Markowitz and Melinda Wharton
  • Work Group Chair: Keipp Talbot

Dengue Vaccine

  • Work Group Purpose: Dengue is caused by any one of four related viruses transmitted by mosquitoes. Dengue virus is a leading cause of illness and death in the tropics and subtropics. The Dengue Vaccine Work Group reviews data on dengue vaccines and develops policy options for ACIP’s consideration.
  • Topics under discussion by the Work Group:
    • Use of dengue vaccines in groups at risk, including people living in dengue endemic areas and people traveling from non-endemic to endemic areas.
    • Implementation of ACIP-recommended dengue vaccines in the US.
  • Work Group activities:
    • Review data on safety, immunogenicity, and efficacy from clinical trials and long-term follow-up studies for dengue vaccines submitted for licensure in the United States.
    • Draft recommendation options for implementation of vaccination with dengue vaccines licensed for use in the United States to present to ACIP for consideration.
    • Identify data gaps and future directions to improve control of dengue through safe and cost-effective vaccination
  • Work Group Lead: Gabriela Paz-Bailey and Laura Adams
  • Work Group Chair: Wilbur Chen

Meningococcal Vaccines

  • Work Group Purpose: Meningococcal disease is a rare but serious bacterial infection. Currently, licensed vaccine products are available in the United States for protection against the primary disease-causing serogroups: serogroup A, C, W, Y conjugate (MenACWY) and serogroup B (MenB) vaccines. The purpose of the ACIP meningococcal vaccines work group is to review data on meningococcal vaccines and develop meningococcal vaccine policy options for ACIP consideration.
  • Topics under discussion by the Work Group:
    • Incorporation of the new Menveo liquid formulation into the current Menveo recommendations.
    • Use of pentavalent (MenABCWY) vaccines in the United States.
    • Evaluate use of meningococcal vaccines for persons experiencing homelessness.
  • Work Group activities:
    • Review available safety, immunogenicity, persistence of antibody protection, and effectiveness data for MenB, MenACWY, and MenABCWY vaccines.
    • Review the epidemiology of meningococcal disease and potential impact of vaccination in targeted populations.
    • Identify areas in need of further evaluation to inform future work group deliberations.
  • Work Group Lead: Sam Crowe
  • Work Group Chair: Katherine Poehling

Mpox Vaccines

  • Work Group Purpose: During May 2022, a global mpox outbreak began, predominantly affecting men who have sex with men. The Mpox Vaccines Work Group will review available data to inform Mpox vaccine policy, including recommendations for use of these vaccines in the U.S. population during the ongoing outbreak.
  • Topics under discussion by the Work Group:
    • Use of vaccines to prevent mpox in the United States.
  • Work Group activities:
    • Review the epidemiology of Mpox virus infections in the United States
    • Evaluate safety and effectiveness of vaccines licensed in the United States to prevent orthopoxvirus infections including mpox
    • Assess risk-benefit balance for use of orthopoxvirus vaccines during the ongoing global mpox outbreak
    • Discuss strategies for ensuring vaccination equity
    • Identify areas where additional data are needed to inform recommendations
    • Develop mpox vaccine policy options
  • Work Group Lead: Agam Rao
  • Work Group Chair: Pablo Sanchez

Pneumococcal Vaccines

  • Work Group Purpose: Each year in the United States, pneumococcal disease causes thousands of infections, such as meningitis, bloodstream infections, pneumonia, and ear infections. The Pneumococcal Vaccines Work Group:
    • Reviews current data on pneumococcal disease burden, and on the efficacy, effectiveness, immunogenicity, and cost-effectiveness of pneumococcal vaccines and assesses the strength of the evidence;
    • Reviews current pneumococcal vaccine recommendations considering up-to-date evidence; and
    • Develops revised or updated policy options for pneumococcal vaccines as needed.
  • Topics under discussion by the Work Group:
    • Use of new pneumococcal conjugate vaccines in U.S. adults and children.
  • Work Group activities:
    • Review new evidence for PCV15 and PCV20 use among adults
    • Review evidence for PCV20 use among children
    • Finalize Evidence to Recommendations framework including GRADE
    • Update MMWR Policy Note and MMWR Recommendation and Report, as needed
  • Work Group Lead: Miwako Kobayashi
  • Work Group Chair: Katherine Poehling

Polio Vaccines

  • Work Group Purpose: Due to the recent occurrence of a case of paralytic polio in New York, circulation of vaccine derived polioviruses in numerous countries (cVDPVs), and advances in vaccine development, an ACIP Polio Work Group is being reestablished. In addition, the current ACIP statement on Poliomyelitis Prevention in the United States was published in 2000 and should be updated.
  • Topics under discussion by the Work Group:
    • Whether more specific guidance on polio vaccination for adults, including use of adult booster doses, can be provided in the context of circulating poliovirus.
    • Whether adults who are immunocompromised should be recommended an additional adult booster of a polio-containing vaccine.
    • Whether fractional doses of inactivated polio vaccine (fIPV), as prequalified by WHO, should meet vaccination requirements, including for people immigrating to the United States
    • Consider criteria under which novel oral polio vaccine (nOPV) might be used in areas with outbreaks or persistent circulation of poliovirus.
  • Work Group activities:
    • Review safety and immunogenicity data for IPV
    • Review safety and immunogenicity data for fIPV
    • Review serosurvey data to understand duration of humoral immunity among adults with differing vaccine histories (OPV, OPV/IPV, IPV)
    • Review safety and immunogenicity data for nOPV
    • Review data on immunogenicity and efficacy or effectiveness among vaccinated immunocompromised adults vaccinated as children
    • Review data on immunogenicity of IPV administered to immunocompromised adults
    • Consider under what epidemiologic conditions nOPV might be used, if licensed by FDA
  • Work Group Lead: Elisabeth Krow-Lucal and Sarah Kidd
  • Work Group Chair: Oliver Brooks

Respiratory Syncytial Virus Vaccines – Pediatric/Maternal

  • Work Group Purpose: Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) is a major cause of lower respiratory illness, particularly among infants and children and among older adults and adults with chronic medical conditions. RSV vaccine and immune globulin development has progressed in the past decade with over 40 candidate vaccines and monoclonal antibodies currently in development.  Target populations for whom these products are intended include infants and young children, pregnant women, and older adults.
    This Work Group will consider policy questions related to maternal and pediatric vaccinations and antibody products. The separate adult Work Group will consider policy topics related to vaccination of adults.
  • Topics under discussion by the Work Group:
    • Use of RSV vaccine(s) and newly developed immune globulin products under development in infants and young children and pregnant women.
  • Work Group activities: Consider recommendation options for use of RSV vaccines and antibodies targeting children <18 years-old
    • Review the epidemiology and burden of RSV disease in children and pregnant women.
    • Review efficacy, immunogenicity, safety, and cost-effectiveness of RSV vaccine(s) and newly developed immune globulin products in pregnant women and children.
    • Provide evidence-based recommendation options regarding use of RSV vaccine(s) and newly developed immune globulin products in pregnant women and children.
    • Identify areas in need of further research for informing potential future vaccine and immune globulin recommendations.
  • Work Group Lead: Jefferson Jones and Katherine Fleming-Dutra
  • Work Group Chair: Sarah Long

Respiratory Syncytial Virus Vaccines – Adult

  • Work Group Purpose: Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) is a major cause of lower respiratory illness, particularly among infants and children and among older adults and adults with chronic medical conditions. RSV vaccine development has progressed in the past decade with over 40 candidate vaccines currently in development. Target populations for whom these products are intended include infants and young children, pregnant women, older adults, and adults with chronic medical conditions.
    This Work Group will consider policy questions related to adult vaccination. The separate pediatric/maternal Work Group will consider policy topics related to vaccination of infants, young children, and pregnant women.
  • Topics under discussion by the Work Group:
    • Use of RSV vaccine(s) in older adults and adults with underlying medical conditions.
  • Work Group activities:
    • Consider recommendation options for the use of RSV vaccines in older adults and adults with underlying medical conditions:
      1. Review the epidemiology and burden of RSV disease in older adults and adults with underlying medical conditions.
      2. Review efficacy, immunogenicity, safety, and cost-effectiveness of RSV vaccine(s) in older adults and adults with underlying medical conditions.
      3. Provide evidence-based recommendation options regarding use of RSV vaccine(s) in older adults and adults with underlying medical conditions.
      4. Identify areas in need of further research for informing potential future vaccine recommendations.
  • Work Group Lead: Michael Melgar
  • Work Group Chair: Camille Kotton