Infectious Diseases, Opioids and Injection Drug Use
A deadly consequence of the opioid crisis is increased incidence of blood-borne infections, including hepatitis B virus and hepatitis C, human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), and bacteria that cause heart infections (endocarditisExternal). The use of contaminated injection drug equipment is a primary transmission route for both HIV and hepatitis C. Increasing injection drug use has placed new populations, including young people, at risk.
CDC’s infectious disease programs work to implement evidence-based drug prevention in school and community settings, and to stop the spread of infectious diseases like HIV and hepatitis C among people who inject drugs. Access to comprehensive prevention services is essential for all persons who inject drugs. Syringe services programs reduce syringe sharing and can help provide access to prevention and treatment services for HIV and other blood-borne diseases, such as hepatitis C and hepatitis B. Below are a summary of CDC resources on infectious disease and injection drug use.
- Viral Hepatitis and People Who Inject Drugs
- Viral Hepatitis and Young Persons Who Inject Drugs
- HIV and Injection Drug Use
- HIV and Substance Use in the United States
- State Laws Related to Access to Clean Needles and Syringes
- Syringe Services Programs
- Persons Who Inject Drugs
- CDC Consultations on Determinations of Need Requests
- Managing HIV and Hepatitis C Outbreaks Among People Who Inject Drugs: A Guide for State and Local Health Departments Cdc-pdf[PDF – 2 MB]
- How HRSA is Addressing the Opioid CrisisExternal
- Integrated Prevention Among People Who Inject Drugs
- State HCV Incidence and Policies Related to HCV Preventive and Treatment Services for Persons Who Inject Drugs — United States, 2015–2016
- Vital Signs: HIV and Injection Drug Use
- Vulnerabilities Assessment: County-Level Vulnerability Assessment for Rapid Dissemination of HIV or HCV Infections Among Persons Who Inject Drugs, United States Cdc-pdf[PDF – 1 MB]
- HIV Infection, Risk, Prevention, and Testing Behaviors among Persons Who Inject Drugs, National HIV Behavioral Surveillance Injection Drug Use, 20 U.S. Cities, 2015
Vulnerable Counties and Jurisdictions Experiencing or At-Risk of Outbreaks
County-level Vulnerability to Rapid Dissemination of HIV/HCV Infection Among Persons who Inject Drugs (September, 2015) and Jurisdictions Determined to be Experiencing or At-risk of Significant Increases in Hepatitis Infection or an HIV Outbreak Due to Injection Drug Use Following CDC Consultation (July, 2018). Includes Top 220 Vulnerable Counties in 26 States and Jurisdictions determined to be experiencing or at-risk of outbreaks (States/Territories: 34, Select Counties: 7)
Data Sources: ESRI, EUROPA, CDC Consultations on Determinations of Need Requests
Van Handel MM, Rose CE, Hallisey EJ, et. al. County-Level Vulnerability Assessment for Rapid Dissemination of HIV or HCV Infections Among Persons Who Inject Drugs, United States. J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr. 2016 Nov 1;73(3): 323-331External.
Top 220 Vulnerable Counties in 26 States and Jurisdictions determined to be experiencing or at-risk of outbreaks (States/Territories: 33, Select Counties: 7)