The updated Technical Manual, Section IV, Chapter 4, Industrial Robot Systems and Industrial Robot System Safety provides technical information to compliance safety and health officers and others, who may be performing inspections at facilities with robot systems. Through an existing alliance, OSHA collaborated with NIOSH and A3 to develop and update this publication.
Proceedings of the 2018 Ergo-X Symposium: Exoskeletons in the Workplace — Assessing Safety, Usability, and Productivity
NIOSH Publication No. 2020-102
Mine safety and rescue through sensing networks and robotics technology
R01-OH-009612, November 2010; :1-24
Programmable electronic mining systems: Best practice recommendations (in nine parts). Part 9: 7.0 Independent functional safety assessment guidance
NIOSH Publication No. 2006-131, IC 9488.
Programmable electronic mining systems: Best practice recommendations (in nine parts). Part 8: 6.0 Safety file guidance
NIOSH Publication No. 2006-130, IC 9487
Programmable electronic mining systems: Best practice recommendations (in nine parts). Part 6: 5.1 System safety guidance
NIOSH Publication No. 2005–150, IC 9480
Programmable electronic mining systems: Best practice recommendations (in nine parts). Part 4: 3.0 Safety file
NIOSH Publication No. 2002–134, IC 9461
Programmable electronic mining systems: Best practice recommendations (in nine parts). Part 1: 1.0 Introduction
NIOSH Publication No. 2001–132, IC 9456
Programmable electronic mining systems: Best practice recommendations (in nine parts). Part 3: 2.2 Software Safety
NIOSH Publication No. 2001-164, IC 9460
Programmable electronic mining systems: Best practice recommendations (in nine parts). Part 2: 2.1 System safety
NIOSH Publication No. 2001–137, IC 9458
Safe maintenance guidelines for robotic workstations
NIOSH Publication No. 88-108
Response time evaluation of three pressure mats as robot workstation safety sensors
Purchase Order Report No. 85-1042
Preventing the injury of workers by robots
NIOSH Publication No. 85-103
Fatal accident summary report: Die cast operator pinned by robot
NIOSH Publication No. 84-20
Through the Fatality Assessment and Control Evaluation (FACE) Program, NIOSH conducts on-site investigations of occupational fatalities, including those related to robots, and supports similar efforts by state partners.
- Reports of robot related fatality investigations conducted by NIOSH
- Reports of robot related fatality investigations conducted by State partners
The following publications are the products of our Cooperative State partners and are presented here in their original unedited form from the states. The findings and conclusions in these products are those of the individual Cooperative State partner and do not necessarily reflect the views or policy of the National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health.
Critical review on applications and roles of exoskeletons in patient handling.
International Journal of Industrial Ergonomics: May 2022; 89:103290
Evaluation and test methods of industrial exoskeletons in vitro, in vivo, and in silico: a critical review.
Critical Reviews in Biomedical Engineering: July 2021; 49(4):1-13
Model-based comparison of passive and active assistance designs in an occupational upper limb exoskeleton for overhead lifting.
IISE Transactions on Occupational Ergonomics and Human Factors: Published online: 26 Jul 2021
On the use of simulation in robotics: opportunities, challenges, and suggestions for moving forward.
The Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences: January 2021; 118(1):e1907856118
Envisioning the future of work to safeguard the safety, health, and well‐being of the workforce: A perspective from the CDC’s National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health
American Journal of Industrial Medicine: 2020;63:1065–1084
An Introduction to the Special Issue on Occupational Exoskeletons
IISE Transactions on Occupational Ergonomics and Human Factors: Published online: 10 Jan 2020
Industrial exoskeletons: Need for intervention effectiveness Research
American Journal of Industrial Medicine: 2020 Mar;63(3):201-208
Artificial intelligence: implications for the future of work
American Journal of Industrial Medicine: 2019 Nov; 62(11):917-926
ASTM F48 Formation and Standards for Industrial Exoskeletons and Exosuits
IISE Transactions on Occupational Ergonomics and Human Factors: Published online: 19 Mar 2019
Unmanned aerial vehicles in construction and worker safety
American Journal of Industrial Medicine: 2018 Jan; 61(1):3-10
Working safely with robot workers: Recommendations for the new workplace
Journal of Occupational and Environmental Hygiene: March 2016 / 13(3):D61-D71
Interfacing safety sensors to industrial robotic workstations
Sensors: April 1987 /4(4) 35-37
Hazard prevention in automated factories
Robotics Engineering: July 1986 / 8(7):8-11
Robot-related fatality involving a U.S. manufacturing plant employee: case report and recommendations
Journal of Occupational Accidents: June 1986 / 8(1-2):13-23
The Role of Robotics in the Future of Work
June 3, 2022
Exoskeletons and Occupational Health Equity
December 14, 2020
January 7, 2020
Artificial Intelligence: Implications for the Future of Work
August 26, 2019
Can Drones Make Construction Safer?
October 23, 2017
Wearable exoskeletons to reduce physical load at work.
March 4, 2016
A Robot May Not Injure a Worker: Working safely with robots
November 20, 2015
CPWR-The Center for Construction Research and Training . A Practical Model for Measuring and Mitigating Safety Risks of Using UAS in Construction
CPWR-The Center for Construction Research and Training . Nebulizer-Retrofitted Drone Deployment at Residential Construction Sites
CPWR-The Center for Construction Research and Training . Protocol for Assessing Human-Robot Interaction Safety Risks
Government of Western Australia . Mine safety bulletin no. 110: Seeking safe mobile autonomous equipment systems
International Federation of Robotics . Executive summary world robotics 2016 industrial robots
Robotics Virtual Organization . A roadmap for U.S. Robotics: From internet to robotics (2016 Edition)
WinterGreen Research, Inc. . Wearable robots, exoskeletons: Market shares, market strategies, and market forecasts, 2015 to 2021. Lexington, MA: WinterGreen Research, Inc. Report #SH26511914.
Disclaimer: Citations to websites external to NIOSH do not constitute NIOSH endorsement of the sponsoring organizations or their programs or products. Further, NIOSH is not responsible for the content of these websites. All web addresses referenced on this page were accessible as of the page last reviewed date.