Updated September 14, 2021

Q-Bank Reports 

CCQDER question evaluation reports are published in Q-Bank. Reports in Q-Bank provide information on question design and performance. This information can be used to improve surveys and better understand survey data estimates.   

View more information on the Q-Bank site 

Books and Volumes  

Cognitive Interviewing Methodology Book

CCQDER staff, along with other collaborators, published a volume on Cognitive Interviewing Methodology providing an interdisciplinary perspective on the evolution of theory and methodology within cognitive interview processes. 

Miller K, Willson SChepp V, Padilla JL, editors. Cognitive Interviewing Methodology. John Wiley & Sons, Inc. 2014. 

Question Evaluation Methods Book

CCQDER staff, along with other collaborators published a volume on Question Evaluation Methods providing insight on common question evaluation methods and best practices for data collection in survey research. The volume is based on the 2009 Question Evaluation Methods Workshop held at the National Center for Health Statistics. 

Madans J, Miller K, Maitland A, Willis G, editors. Question Evaluation Methods: Contributing to the Science of Data Quality. John Wiley & Sons, Inc. 2011. 

Journal Articles and Book Chapters 


Miller K. Conducting cognitive interviewing studies to examine survey question comparability. In:  Johnson TP, Pennell BE, Stoop IAL, Dorer B, editors. Advances in comparative survey methods: Multinational, multiregional, and multicultural contexts (3MC) 203–25. John Wiley and Sons Inc. 2018. DOI:  

Miller K, Willis G. Cognitive models of answering processes. In: Wolf C, Joye D, Smith TW, Fu YC, editors. The SAGE Handbook of Survey Methodology. SAGE Publications. 2016. DOI: 

Miller K. Conducting cognitive interviews to understand question-response limitations. Am J Health Behav. 27(S3):26472. 2003. Available from:;jsessionid=2pra6skpp5jqe.x-ic-live-02 

Parker J, Miller K, He Y, Scanlon P, Cai B, Shin H-C, et al. Overview and initial results of the National Center for Health Statistics’ Research and Development Survey. Stat J IAOS 36(4):1199211. 2020. Available from: 

Scanlon P. The effects of embedding closed-ended cognitive probes in a web survey on survey response. Field Methods 31(4):328–43. 2019. DOI: 

Scanlon P. Using targeted embedded probes to quantify cognitive interviewing findings. In:  Beatty PC,  Collins D, Kaye L, Padilla JL, Willis G, Wilmot A, editors. Advances in questionnaire design, development, evaluation, and testing 427–50. John Wiley and Sons Inc. 2019. DOI: 

Subject Specific 

Miller K. Summary of Washington Group question evaluation studies. In: Altman BM, editor. International measurement of disability: Purpose, method and application. Springer International Publishing. 2016.  

Ridolfo H, Miller K, Maitland A. Measuring sexual identity using survey questionnaires: How valid are our measures? Sexuality research and social policyA Journal of the NSRC 9(2):113–24.2012. Available from:  

Santibanez TA, Nguyen KH, Greby SM, Fisher A, Scanlon P, Bhatt A, et al. Parental vaccine hesitancy and childhood influenza vaccination. Pediatrics 146(6). 2020. DOI: 

Willson S, Miller K, Seem D, Kuehnert MJ. Cognitive evaluation of the AABB Uniform Donor History Questionnaire. Transfusion. 2016 Jun;56(6 Pt 2):1662–7. DOI: 

Related Pages 

Question Evaluation Methods (QEM) Workshop 

In 2009, the CCQDER along with NCHS leadership and the National Cancer Institute hosted a workshop on question evaluation methods. Authors engaged in an interdisciplinary and cross-method examination of the methods, and presentations were given by leading experts in different evaluation methods. Workshop on Question Evaluation Methods