Clinical Resources

At a glance

CDC is working to compile the most up to date guidance and information for front-line healthcare professionals to consult when treating and preventing Lyme Disease in patients. Check out the resources below for more information.

Illustration of a healthcare provider learning how to diagnose and treat Lyme disease

Ordering Information for Educational Materials


Order hard copies of educational materials here.

Additional reading


Halperin JJ, Baker P, Wormser GP. Common misconceptions about Lyme disease. Am J Med 2013;126(3):264.

Hu LT. Lyme disease. Ann Intern Med. 2016 May 3;164(9).

Kugeler KJ, Schwartz AM, Delorey MJ, et al. Estimating the frequency of Lyme disease diagnoses, United States, 2010-2018. Emerg Infect Dis. 2021 Feb;27(2):616-619.

Schwartz AM, Kugeler KJ, Nelson CA, et al. Use of commercial claims data for evaluating trends in Lyme disease diagnoses, United States, 2010-2018. Emerg Infect Dis. 2021;27(2):499-507.

Stanek G, Wormser GP, Gray J, Strle F. Lyme borreliosis. Lancet 2012;379(9814):461-73.

Lyme carditis

Marx GE, Leikauskas J, Lindstrom K, et al. Fatal Lyme Carditis in New England: Two Case Reports Annals of Internal Medicine 2020;172(3): 222-224.

Forrester JD, Mead P. Third-degree heart block associated with lyme carditis: Review of published cases. Clin Infect Dis 2014 May 30. pii: ciu411.

Lyme disease post-exposure prophylaxis after tick bite

Nadelman RB, et al. Prophylaxis with single-dose doxycycline for the prevention of Lyme disease after an Ixodes scapularis tick bite. N Engl J Med. 2001 Jul 12;345(2):79-84.

Harms MG, et al. A single dose of doxycycline after an Ixodes ricinus tick bite to prevent Lyme borreliosis: An open-label randomized controlled trial. J Infect. 2021 Jan;82(1):98-104.

Pediatrics and pregnancy

American Academy of Pediatrics. Lyme disease (Lyme borreliosis, Borrelia burgdorferi infection). In: Pickering LK, Red Book: 2021.

Grant DS, Neville DN, Levas M, et al. Validation of septic knee monoarthritis prediction rule in a Lyme disease endemic area. Pediatr Emerg Care. 2021 May 13.

Sood SK. Lyme disease in children. Infect Dis Clin North Am. 2015 Jun;29(2):281-94.

Waddell LA, Greig J, Lindsay LR, et al. A systematic review on the impact of gestational Lyme disease in humans on the fetus and newborn. PLoS One. 2018 Nov 12;13(11):e0207067.


Aguero-Rosenfeld ME, Wang G, Schwartz I, Wormser GP. Diagnosis of Lyme borreliosis. Clin Microbiol Rev 2005 Jul;18(3):484-509.

Association of Public Health Laboratories. Suggested reporting language, interpretation and guidance regarding Lyme disease serologic test results. [PDF – 17 pages] 2021.

Branda JA, Steere AC. Laboratory diagnosis of Lyme Borreliosis. Clin Microbiol Rev. 2021 Jan 27;34(2):e00018-19.

Branda JA, Strle F, Strle K, Sikand N, Ferraro MJ, Steere AC. Performance of United States serologic assays in the diagnosis of Lyme borreliosis acquired in Europe. Clin Infect Dis 2013 Aug;57(3):333-40.

Concerns regarding a new culture method for Borrelia burgdorferi not approved for the diagnosis of Lyme disease. MMWR 2014;63:333.

Hinckley AF, Connally NP, Meek JI, et al. Lyme disease testing by large commercial laboratories in the United States. Clin Infect Dis 2014 May 30. pii: ciu397.

Johnson BJ, Pilgard MA, Russell TM. Assessment of new culture method for detection of Borrelia species from serum of Lyme disease patients. J Clin Microbiol 2014;52:721–4.

Johnson, B.J. "Chapter 4: Laboratory diagnostic testing for Borrelia burgdorferi infection" in Lyme disease: An Evidence-based Approach, J.J. Halperin, Ed. (CAB International, 2011). Complete Article Reproduced with Permission. [PDF – 16 pages]

Mead P, Petersen J, Hinckley A. Updated CDC recommendation for serologic diagnosis of Lyme disease. MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep. 2019 Aug 16;68(32):703.

Moore A, Nelson C, Molins C, et al. Current guidelines, common clinical pitfalls, and future directions for laboratory diagnosis of Lyme disease, United States. Emerg Infect Dis. 2016 Jul;22(7).

Notice to readers: caution regarding testing for Lyme disease. MMWR, CDC Surveillance Summary 2005;54:125.

Recommendations for test performance and interpretation from the second national conference on serologic diagnosis of Lyme disease. MMWR 1995;44:590–591.

Swanson SJ, Neitzel D, Reed KD, Belongia EA. Coinfections acquired from Ixodes ticks. Clin Microbiol Rev 2006 Oct;19(4):708-27.

Ongoing research

Check out for studies of Lyme disease and Borrelia Infections.

Biomedical Literature

Search the biomedical literature at PubMed.