The Economics of Injury and Violence Prevention
Health economics examines the costs and consequences of health issues, connecting public health science to real-world applications. It is used to develop policies and programs that promote healthy lifestyles and positive health outcomes that are also cost-effective for individuals, states, and the nation.
CDC’s Injury Center applies health economics to the study of opioid overdoses, suicide, child abuse and neglect, intimate partner violence, older adult falls, traumatic brain injury, motor vehicle crashes, and other causes of injuries and violence. We use health economics to identify, measure, value, and compare the costs and consequences of injuries and prevention strategies.
Unintentional and violence-related injuries cause more than 240,000 deaths among people of all ages in the United States each year. Unintentional injuries are the leading cause of death for people ages 1-44.
A greater number of people experience nonfatal injuries each year. Nonfatal injuries can cause life-long mental, physical, and financial problems.
Fatal and nonfatal injuries are costly. A recent CDC study estimated the medical care cost of U.S. fatal and nonfatal injuries by type of injuryexternal icon.
- The average medical cost of all fatal injuries was approximately $41,570 per hospitalized patient and $6,880 per emergency department patient. Each year approximately 50,000 people die in hospitals from injuries, and approximately 30,000 die in emergency departments from injuries.
- The average one-year medical cost of all nonfatal injuries per person initially treated in an emergency department was approximately $6,620. Each year there are approximately 28 million emergency department visits for nonfatal injuries.
Injuries can cause lost productivity at work. A recent CDC study estimated the lost work productivity cost of U.S. nonfatal injuries by type of injuryexternal icon.
People treated for nonfatal injuries in an emergency department lose on average 11 days of work, valued at $1,590 per person.
More than 30,000 people are killed in motor vehicle crashes each year in the United States. These injuries and deaths have a high economic impact for states. Many evidence-based strategies can significantly reduce the number of injuries and deaths from motor vehicle crashes and their related costs.
See the cost of deaths from motor vehicle crashes and which age groups and types of road users account for the largest portion of these costs in each state: State-Specific Costs of Motor Vehicle Crash Deaths.
Calculate the expected number and monetized value of 14 effective motor vehicle injury prevention interventions with MV PICCS 3.0: Motor Vehicle Prioritizing Interventions and Cost Calculator for States (MV PICCS).
An estimated 1,720 children died from abuse and neglect in 2017, and about 674,000 children were identified as victims of child abuse or neglect by child protective service agencies. Safe, stable, nurturing relationships and environments are essential to preventing child abuse and neglect, and policies and programs supportive of children and families can help.
Estimate the local health and financial impact of selected child abuse and neglect prevention programs by state. These programs are among those with the best available evidence and have published per-child or per-family costs: Child Abuse and Neglect (CAN) Prevention Program Cost Calculator.
A recent CDC studyexternal icon showed that the estimated medical cost of older adult falls across the U.S. healthcare system is $50 billion annually. This includes $38 billion paid by Medicare and Medicaid and $12 billion paid by private and other payers.
Older adult falls can be prevented. Initiatives like Stopping Elderly Accidents, Deaths, and Injuries (STEADI) can improve health and decrease the future economic burden of older adult falls. STEADI recommendations include screening older adults to identify their fall risk, assessing at‐risk individuals to identify their modifiable fall risk factors, and intervening by using effective strategies to reduce fall risk factors.
Cost of Injuries
- Average lost work productivity due to nonfatal injuries by type in the USAexternal icon
- Average medical cost of fatal and nonfatal injuries by type in the USAexternal icon
- Cost of Injury for States
- Cost of Injury Reports: Customize and Generate Data Tables
Cost of Violence
- Lifetime economic burden of intimate partner violence among US adultsexternal icon
- Short-term lost productivity per victim: intimate partner violence, sexual violence, or stalkingexternal icon
- Lifetime economic burden of rape among US adultsexternal icon
- The impact of the low-income housing tax credit on children’s health and wellbeing in Georgiaexternal icon
- The economic burden of child maltreatment in the United States, 2015external icon
- Cost-benefit analysis of two child abuse and neglect primary prevention programs for US statesexternal icon
- Economics and violence against children, findings from the Violence Against Children Survey in Nigeriaexternal icon
- Effect of the earned income tax credit on hospital admissions for pediatric abusive head trauma, 1995-2013external icon
- Paid family leave’s effect on hospital admissions for pediatric abusive head traumaexternal icon
- Annual cost of U.S. hospital visits for pediatric abusive head traumaexternal icon
Cost of Unintentional Injuries
- Estimating the Economic Burden Related to Older Adult Falls by Stateexternal icon
- Medical costs of fatal and nonfatal falls in older adultsexternal icon
- Preventing deaths and injuries from house fires: A cost-benefit analysis of a community-based smoke alarm installation programmeexternal icon
- The Economic Burden of Prescription Opioid Overdose, Abuse, and Dependence in the United States, 2013external icon
- Payments for opioids shifted substantially to public and private insurers while consumer spending declined, 1999-2012external icon
- A cost-benefit analysis of three older adult fall prevention interventionsexternal icon