2016 Fluoridation Statistics

NOTE: A new methodology for calculating population estimates has been applied starting with 2016 data. Prior to 2016, the state reported community water system (CWS) populations were corrected by adjusting those states that had a total CWS population greater than the U.S. Census Bureau (USCB) down to the USCB population for the state and adjusting the state reported fluoridated population by the same factor. For many states, this still overestimated the CWS population as it did not account for those residents on private residential wells or non-community water systems. The new methodology also leverages the Percent of State Population on CWS estimate from the U.S. Geological Survey, which tailors the factor appropriately for each state and accounts for the proportion of each state’s population on other self-supply water sources (private residential wells or non-community water systems). The new methodology results in a new control factor that is applied to both the state reported CWS population and state reported fluoridated population.

As a result, reported population estimates may be different from previous reports. You can read more about the new methodology here on the Calculating Fluoridation Statistics page.

These statistics were prepared using water system data reported by states to the CDC Water Fluoridation Reporting System as of December 31, 2016, the U.S. Census Bureau state population estimates for July 2016external icon, and population estimates served by public water supply as publishedexternal icon by the U.S. Geological Survey on November 5, 2014.

2016 National Water Fluoridation Statistics

2014 National Water Fluoridation Statistics
Total US population, personsa 323,127,513
US population on community water systems (CWS), personsb,c 276,969,134
Total US population on fluoridated drinking water systems, personsb,c 201,565,162
Percentage of US population receiving fluoridated waterc,d 62.4%
Percentage of US population on CWS receiving fluoridated waterc,e 72.8%
Total number of CWS providing fluoridated waterb 52,286
Number of CWS providing fluoridated waterb 18,030
Number of CWS adjusting fluorideb 5,817
Number of CWS consecutive to systems with optimal fluoride levelsb 6,230
Number of CWS with naturally occurring fluoride at or above optimal levelsb 5,865
Population served by CWS with naturally occurring fluoride at or above optimal levelsb,c 11,283,910

2016 State Fluoridation Percentage Calculations and States Ranked by Fluoridation Percentage

State Fluoridation Percentage Calculations and States Ranked by Fluoridation Percentage
State Persons Receiving Fluoridated Waterc Persons Served by CWSc % Population Served by CWS Receiving Fluoridated Water Rankf
US 201,565,162 276,969,134 72.8%
Alabama 3,367,031 4,314,476 78.0% 24
Alaska 233,192 469,850 49.6% 44
Arizona 3,868,308 6,694,514 57.8% 39
Arkansas 2,431,541 2,840,231 85.6% 20
Californiag 22,201,744 36,641,304 60.6% 37
Colorado 3,893,189 5,197,242 74.9% 29
Connecticut 2,421,487 2,704,505 89.5% 16
Delaware 660,276 755,629 87.4% 20
District of Columbia 681,170 681,170 100.0% 1
Floridag 14,269,078 18,521,077 77.0% 26
Georgia 8,348,197 8,681,891 96.2% 6
Hawaii 154,360 1,370,079 11.3% 51
Idaho 392,745 1,219,353 32.2% 48
Illinois 11,474,462 11,648,817 98.5% 4
Indiana 4,652,921 4,936,187 94.3% 8
Iowa 2,280,194 2,526,141 90.3% 14
Kansas 1,829,273 2,753,541 66.4% 34
Kentucky 3,753,680 3,758,413 99.9% 2
Louisiana 1,801,324 4,074,943 44.2% 46
Maine 610,053 769,362 79.3% 23
Maryland 4,579,173 4,901,590 93.4% 10
Massachusetts 3,621,778 6,256,423 57.9% 38
Michigan 6,492,531 7,240,436 89.7% 15
Minnesota 4,294,393 4,346,035 98.8% 3
Mississippi 1,548,369 2,539,375 61.0% 36
Missouri 3,986,715 5,194,390 76.8% 27
Montana 250,037 742,072 33.7% 47
Nebraska 1,106,087 1,545,849 71.6% 31
Nevada 2,076,200 2,768,047 75.0% 28
New Hampshire 410,339 883,053 46.5% 45
New Jersey 1,159,594 7,963,631 14.6% 50
New Mexico 1,367,330 1,774,661 77.0% 25
New York 12,655,170 17,660,481 71.7% 30
North Carolina 5,814,174 6,631,229 87.7% 19
North Dakota 672,662 702,333 95.8% 7
Ohio 9,042,076 9,771,921 92.5% 11
Oklahoma 2,499,519 3,593,399 69.6% 32
Oregon 778,590 3,445,307 22.6% 49
Pennsylvania 5,138,572 9,417,111 54.6% 42
Rhode Island 796,730 943,071 84.5% 22
South Carolina 3,404,278 3,725,371 91.4% 12
South Dakota 734,542 785,109 93.6% 9
Tennessee 5,382,302 6,087,058 88.4% 17
Texas 17,017,307 25,158,299 67.6% 33
Utah 1,578,107 2,995,452 52.7% 43
Vermont 249,073 443,316 56.2% 41
Virginia 6,428,007 6,677,652 96.3 5
Washington 3,962,936 6,201,066 63.9% 35
West Virginia 1,301,998 1,442,417 90.3% 13
Wisconsin 3,625,881 4,107,306 88.3% 18
Wyoming 266,465 466,949 57.1% 40

Footnotes

a Census Population Count 2016. Annual Estimates of the Population for the United States, Regions, States, and Puerto Rico: April 1, 2010 to July 1, 2016. Source: U.S. Census Bureau, Population Division. Release Date: December 2016. Available at https://factfinder.census.gov/faces/tableservices/jsf/pages/productview.xhtml?pid=PEP_2016_PEPANNRES&src=ptexternal icon

 

b Reported in CDC Water Fluoridation Reporting System (WFRS). For purposes of this report, a water system is considered a community water system if so designated by the state drinking water administrator in accordance with the regulatory requirements of the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. A community water system (CWS) supplies water to the same population year-round. It serves at least 25 people at their primary residences or at least 15 residences that are primary residences (for example, municipalities, mobile home park, sub-divisions). http://water.epa.gov/infrastructure/drinkingwater/pws/factoids.cfmexternal icon.

 

c State populations served by CWS reported in WFRS are controlled using a product of the U.S. Census state population estimate and the U.S. Geological Survey’s estimate of the percentages of state populations on public water systems. Populations served by each CWS are controlled proportionately within each state. For details on the population controlling method used, see Calculating Fluoridation Statistics. U.S. Geological Survey: Maupin, M.A., Kenny, J.F., Hutson, S.S., Lovelace, J.K., Barber, N.L., and Linsey, K.S., 2014, Estimated use of water in the United States in 2010: U.S. Geological Survey Circular 1405, 56 p., https://dx.doi.org/10.3133/cir1405external icon

 

d Fluoridated population divided by total population.

 

e Fluoridated population divided by population served by community water systems.

 

f Rank is based on highest to lowest percentage of population served by CWS receiving fluoridated water. Includes all states and Washington DC (51 total rankings).

 

g Complete data were not available from WFRS. State provided additional information.