Diabetes in Youth

Of the estimated 23 million people with diagnosed diabetes in 2015, about 193,000 were children and adolescents younger than age 20.3 The increasing frequency of both type 1 and type 2 diabetes in young people is a growing clinical and public health concern. Since 2000, CDC and the National Institutes of Health have funded the SEARCH for Diabetes in Youth Studyexternal icon. This multicenter study is designed to learn more about type 1 and type 2 diabetes among children and young adults in the United States.

Early findings from the SEARCH study indicated that the prevalence of both type 1 and type 2 diabetes increased among young people during 2001–2009.8 Later findings indicated that incidence also went up during 2002–2012. The annual relative increase for type 1 diabetes was 1.8%, while the increase for type 2 diabetes was 4.8%. About 17,900 children and adolescents younger than age 20 were newly diagnosed with type 1 diabetes during 2011–2012, with the highest rate of new cases among non-Hispanic whites (Figure 5). About 5,300 young people aged 10 to 19 years were newly diagnosed with type 2 diabetes during 2011–2012, and those who were members of racial or ethnic minority groups had the highest rates of new cases (Figure 6).9

Figure 5. Incidence of Type 1 Diabetes Among US Children and Adolescents Aged 0 to 19 Years, by Race/Ethnicity, 2011–2012

American Indian 46.5, Asian/Pacific Islander 12.2, Hispanic 18.2, Black, non-hispanic 32.6, white, non-hispanic 3.9. Numbers are rate per 100,000

Note: American Indian youth who participated in the SEARCH study are not representative of all American Indian youth in the United States. Thus, these rates cannot be generalized to all American Indian youth nationwide.
Data source: SEARCH for Diabetes in Youth Study.

group of university students sitting on steps

Figure 6. Incidence of Type 2 Diabetes Among U.S. Children and Adolescents Aged 10 to 19 Years, by Race/Ethnicity, 2011-2012

Incidence of Type 2 Diabetes Among U.S. Children and Adolescents Aged 10 to 19 Years, by Race/Ethnicity, 2011-2012. American Indian 46.5% , Asian/Pacific Islander 12.2, Hispanic 18.2, Black non-hispanic 18.2 white non-hispanic 3.9

Note: American Indian youth who participated in the SEARCH study are not representative of all American Indian youth in the United States. Thus, these rates cannot be generalized to all American Indian youth nationwide.
Data source: SEARCH for Diabetes in Youth Study.

The SEARCH study also found that deaths from diabetes among all US children and adolescents aged 1 to 19 years went down, from 265 during 2000–2002 to 228 during 2012–2014. Although diabetes deaths among children and adolescents went down over time the death rate among non-Hispanic black children and adolescents was about twice as high compared to non-Hispanic white children and adolescents during 2012–2014. Additional research to identify health care factors and behaviors that contribute to diabetes deaths among children and adolescents may help public health officials understand the reasons for differences by race or ethnicity so they can focus their future prevention efforts more effectively.10

References
  1. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Division of Diabetes Translation website. Reports to Congress. https://www.cdc.gov/diabetes/library/reports/congress.html. Accessed September 20, 2017.
  2. Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act of 2009. L No. 111-148,external icon Title X, Sec 10407, 42 USC 247b-9a.
  3. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. National Diabetes Statistics Report, 2017. Atlanta, GA: Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, US Dept of Health and Human Services; 2017.
  4. Rutledge SA, Masalovich S, Blacher RJ, Saunders MM. Diabetes self-management education programs in nonmetropolitan counties — United States, 2016.external icon MMWR Surveill Summ. 2017;66(10):1–6.
  5. Beckles GL, Chou C. Disparities in the prevalence of diagnosed diabetes — United States, 1999–2002 and 2011–2014. MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep. 2016;65(45):1265–1269.
  6. Luo H, Beckles GL, Zhang X, Sotnikov S, Thompson T, Bardenheier B. The relationship between county-level contextual characteristics and use of diabetes care services. pdf icon[PDF – 1 MB] J Public Health Manag Pract. 2014;20(4):401–410.
  7. US Department of Health and Human Services. Healthy People 2020 website. Social Determinants of Health. https://www.healthypeople.gov/2020/topics-objectives/topic/social-determinants-of-healthexternal icon. Accessed September 1, 2017.
  8. Dabelea D, Mayer-Davis EJ, Saydah S, et al. Prevalence of type 1 and type 2 diabetes among children and adolescents from 2001 to 2009. JAMA. 2014;311(17):1778–1786.
  9. Mayer-Davis EJ, Lawrence JM, Dabelea D, et al. Incidence trends of type 1 and type 2 diabetes among youths, 2002–2012. N Engl J Med. 2017;376:1419–1429.
  10. Saydah S, Imperatore G, Cheng Y, Geiss LS, Albright A. Disparities in diabetes deaths among children and adolescents — United States, 2000–2014. MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep. 2017;66:502–505.
  11. Powers MA, Bardsley J, Cypress M, et al. Diabetes self-management education and support in type 2 diabetes: a joint position statement of the American Diabetes Association, the American Association of Diabetes Educators, and the Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics.external icon J Acad Nutr Diet. 2015;115(8):1323–1334.
  12. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Diabetes Prevention Impact Toolkit website. https://nccd.cdc.gov/Toolkit/DiabetesImpact. Accessed May 25, 2017.
  13. The Policy Surveillance Program and ChangeLab Solutions. Health Insurance Coverage Laws for Diabetes Self-Management Education and Training website. http://lawatlas.org/datasets/diabetes-self-management-education-lawsexternal icon. Accessed May 25, 2017.
  14. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Diabetes State Burden Toolkit website. https://nccd.cdc.gov/Toolkit/DiabetesBurdenexternal icon. Accessed May 25, 2017.
  15. National Association of Chronic Disease Directors. National Diabetes Prevention Program Coverage Toolkit website. http://www.nationaldppcoveragetoolkit.org/external icon. Accessed July 13, 2017.
Page last reviewed: June 10, 2019