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Smoking During Pregnancy—United States, 1990–2002

October 7, 2004 / Vol. 53 / No. 39

MMWR Highlights

  • In 2002, smoking during pregnancy was reported by 11.4% of all women giving birth in the United States, a decrease of 38% from 1990, when 18.4% reported.
  • From 1990 to 2002, all 44 states (and DC) with comparable data for the entire observation period reported significant declines in maternal smoking.
  • However, the declines were variable, ranging from 5.8% in West Virginia (from 27.8% in 1990 to 26.2% in 2002) to 68.0% in Massachusetts (from 25.3% in 1990 to 8.1% in 2002).
  • Every year from 1996 through 2001, maternal smoking for females aged 15--19 years had the highest percentage of smoking during pregnancy than any other age group.
  • However, in 2002, the percentage of maternal smokers aged 15–19 years(16.7%)was the same as that for women aged 20–24 years, with the highest percentage observed among women aged 18–19 years (18.2%).
  • Of 45 states (and DC) where maternal smoking percentages were calculated for teen mothers during both 1990–1991 and 1995–1996, a total of 34 states had significant declines.
  • Of the 45 reporting states, DC, and NYC, where maternal smoking percentages could be calculated for teen mothers for both 1995–1996 and 2001--2002, a total of 16 states and NYC had significant declines, but 15 states had significant increases for teen maternal smoking.
  • Of these 15 states, 10 had a complete trend reversal from a significant decrease from 1990–1991 to 1995–1996 to a significant increase from 1995–1996 to 2001–2002.
  • Thirteen states had consistent and significant declines among pregnant women aged 15–19 years, both from 1990–1991 to 1995–1996 and from 1995–1996 to 2001–2002; four states had significantly higher teen smoking percentages in 2001–2002, compared with 1990–1991.
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