Blanket Purchase Agreements (BPAs) – BPAs are contracts that set standard prices and terms for products and services that are commonly ordered by an agency. By creating BPAs, an agency can leverage its combined buying power to take advantage of quantity discounts. Because vendors compete for the BPA when it is established, competition is not required for individual purchases from a BPA, which saves agencies administrative time and money.

Central Contractor Registration (CCR) – The CCR is the primary vendor database for the federal government. Both current and potential government vendors are required to register in CCR in order to be awarded contracts by the government. Note, to register with the CCR, you must first obtain a DUNS number.

Dun and Bradstreet Universal Numbering System (DUNS)DUNS provides a unique nine-digit identification number for each physical location of a business. A DUNS number is required to register in the CCR and is free for all businesses required to do so.

Employer Identification Number (EIN) – An EIN serves as the Taxpayer Identification Number (TIN) for businesses. In short, it is a business’s version of a Social Security Number. EINs may be requested from the Internal Revenue Service.

Federal Prisons Industries, Inc. (FPI) – The Federal Prisons Industries, also known as UNICOR, employs and provides skill training to federal inmates who produce market-price quality goods for sale to the federal government. UNICOR’s mission is to contribute to the safety and security of correctional facilities by keeping inmates constructively occupied, operate in a self-sustaining manner, and minimize FPI's impact on private business and labor.

GSA (U.S. General Services Administration) SchedulesGSA Schedules are long-term government-wide contracts that establish set prices and terms for supplies and services. Because ordering from these established contracts saves government agencies administrative time and money, preference is often given to vendors on a GSA Schedule. Businesses interested in becoming a GSA Schedule contractor should visit GSA’s site for vendors. GSA Schedules are also referred to as Multiple Award Schedules and Federal Supply Schedules.

HUBZone – The HUBZone Program stimulates economic development and creates jobs in urban and rural communities by providing federal contracting preferences to HUBZone small businesses. HUBZone (Historically Underutilized Business Zone) certification requires that a business employs staff who live in a HUBZone and maintains a "principal office" in a HUBZone. The program resulted from provisions contained in the Small Business Reauthorization Act of 1997.

JWOD Participating Nonprofit AgenciesJWOD participating nonprofit agencies employ people who are blind or have other severe disabilities. The Javits-Wagner-O’Day (JWOD) Act requires that federal agencies procure certain items and services from these agencies. The JWOD Act also established the Committee for Purchase from People Who Are Blind or Severely Disabled, which is an independent government activity responsible for determining which supplies and services must be purchased from JWOD agencies, establishing prices for the supplies and services, and establishing rules and regulations to implement the JWOD Act.

North American Industry Classification System (NAICS)NAICS is a six-digit hierarchical coding system to classify all economic activity into twenty industry sectors. NAICS replaced the U.S. Standard Industrial Classification (SIC) system in October 2000.

Online Representations and Certifications Application (ORCA)ORCA is an e-government initiative that replaces most of the paper based Representations and Certifications (Reps and Certs) process, known as Section K.

Service-Disabled Veteran-Owned (SDVO) Small Business – A SDVO small business must be at least 51 percent unconditionally and directly owned by one or more service-disabled veterans. This can include a publicly owned business that has at least 51 percent of its stock unconditionally owned by one or more service-disabled veterans. The management and daily business operations of the SDVO small business must be controlled by one or more service-disabled veterans (or in the case of a veteran with permanent and severe disability, the spouse or permanent caregiver of such veteran). A SDVO small business may self-certify in the Central Contractor Registry.

Small Business – The definition of a small business varies by industry. The Small Business Administration provides information on these “size standards” by industry.

Small Disadvantaged Business (SDB) – SBDs are small businesses that are at least 51 percent owned by one or more individuals who are both socially and economically disadvantaged. This can include publicly owned businesses that have at least 51 percent of stock unconditionally owned by one or more socially and economically disadvantaged individuals and whose management and daily business is controlled by one or more such individuals. 8(a) firms automatically qualify for SDB certification.

Taxpayer Identification Number (TIN) – A TIN is a nine-digit number used for tax processing. An individual’s TIN is his/her Social Security Number (SSN), and a business’s TIN is its Employer Identifying Number (EIN).

Women-Owned Small BusinessWomen-owned small businesses may self-certify in the Central Contractor Registry.