Health Disparities in HIV/AIDS, Viral Hepatitis, STDs, and TB
In 2011, the diagnosis rate for HIV cases in the United States was 15.8 per 100,000 population and 60.4 among Blacks. Of 197,090 diagnoses of HIV-infection from 2008-2011, Blacks/African Americans accounted for:
- 47% of the total
- 64% of women
- 66% of infections attributed to heterosexual contact
- 67% of children, ages < 13
In 2010, the death rate for blacks was higher (25.0 per 100,000) compared with any other racial ethnicity group (3.0 whites). Blacks represented 49% of all deaths with HIV in 2010. A recent study showed that blacks diagnosed with HIV are less likely than other groups to be linked to care, retained in care, receive antiretroviral treatment and achieve adequate viral suppression.
African American Males
African American men accounted for 42% of HIV cases diagnosed among men in 2011. A majority (72%) of African American men with HIV contracted the disease by male to male contact while 19% contracted HIV through heterosexual exposure.
African American Females
Among African American women, high risk heterosexual contact was the most frequently cited mode of transmission, accounting for 89% of cases diagnosed in 2011.
Sexually Transmitted Diseases (STD)
In 2010, 69% of all reported cases of gonorrhea occurred among blacks. The rate of gonorrhea among blacks in 2010 was 432.5 cases per 100,000 population, which was 18.7 times the rate among whites (23.1). This disparity has changed little in recent years. This disparity was larger for black men (22.2 times) than for black women (16.2 times).
In 2010, the overall rate among blacks in the United States was 1,167.5 cases per 100,000, a 4.0% increase from the 2009 rate of 1,122.2 cases per 100,000. The rate of chlamydia among black women was over seven times the rate among white women (1,536.5 and 205.1 per 100,000 women, respectively). The chlamydia rate among black men was almost 11 times the rate among white men (761.8 and 69.9 cases per 100,000 men, respectively).
During 2009–2010, the rate of primary and secondary (P&S) syphilis among blacks decreased 8.7% (from 18.4 to 16.8 cases per 100,000 population). In 2010, 47.4% of all cases reported to CDC were among blacks and 31.0% of all cases were among whites.
The overall 2010 rate for blacks was eight times the rate for whites, while the 2009 rate was 9.2 times the rate for whites. In 2010, the rate of P&S syphilis among black men was 7.1 times the rate among white men; the rate among black women was 21 times the rate among white women.
In 2010, the rate of congenital syphilis was 33.1 cases per 100,000 live births among blacks. Race/ethnicity for cases of congenital syphilis is based on the mother’s race/ethnicity. This rates was 12.3 times the rate among whites (2.7 cases per 100,000 live births).
- STD Topic Site
- STDs and Health Disparities
- STD Surveillance Report
- STDs in Racial and Ethnic Minorities
Acute Hepatitis A
During the past 10 years, there has been little difference between the rates of acute hepatitis A among white non-Hispanics and black non-Hispanics. The 2011 rates for these groups were 0.29 and 0.27 cases per 100,000 population, respectively.
Acute Hepatitis B
In 2011, the rate of acute hepatitis B was highest for Black non-Hispanics (1.4 cases per 100,000 population).
Acute Hepatitis C
During 2002–2010, the incidence rate of acute hepatitis C remained below 0.5 cases per 100,000. The rate of hepatitis C among Black non-Hispanics increased 27.3% (to 0.14 case per 100,000 population in 2011).
In 2010, 84% of all reported TB cases occurred in racial and ethnic minorities. Non-Hispanic blacks or African Americans accounted for 24% of TB cases in 2010. African Americans make up approximately 14% of the U.S. population, but accounted for 40% of TB cases in U.S.-born persons. Overall, 11,182 TB cases were reported to CDC from the 50 states and the District of Columbia in 2010.
- TB in Blacks Fact Sheet – HTML, PDF
- Tuberculosis Topic Site
- TB in Blacks
- Tuberculosis Surveillance Report