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Parks and Trails Health Impact Assessment

Section C: Common HIA Recommendations

Section C contains recommendations for health issues associated with park and trail projects and policies. These recommendations were gathered from 11 HIAs that focused on the health impacts of parks and trails. We found these 11 HIAs on the Health Impact Project website and by using the personal knowledge of people developing HIA practices in the United States. HIAs completed by March 2013 that addressed park and trail projects were selected for review. The HIA recommendations and the evidence on which those recommendations were based are the foundation of this toolkit.

The recommendations identify overarching strategies that have been associated with health outcomes. Each overarching strategy includes broad recommendations, examples of specific recommendations, and supporting literature.

See Appendix B for a list of the HIAs reviewed with links.

 

1. Connectivity - incorporate park-level design that supports connectivity

  • Support comprehensive street, sidewalk, and bike-lane networks that connect neighborhoods and destination points to parks and trails
    • Ensure development codes and design guides promote connectivity as part of infill and new development
  • Ensure connecting sidewalks are wide enough to support pedestrians walking in groups
  • Provide frequent park/trail access points
  • Coordinate transit stops with park/trail access points
  • Create visible and safe pedestrian and bike routes to nearby destinations such as schools and libraries

Connectivity Source Materials

 

Peer Reviewed Literature

 

Frank L, Schmid T, Sallis J, et al. 2010. Linking objectively measured physical activity with objectively measured urban form: Findings from SMARTRAQ. Am J Preven Med 28(2) Supplement 2, Pages 117–125. Available at: http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0749379704003253 [Accessed 2012 Feb 14].

Grow HM, Saelens BE, Kerr J, et al. 2008. Where are youth active? Roles of proximity, active transport, and built environment. Med Sci Sports Exerc Dec 40(12):2071-9. Available at: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18981942 [Accessed 2012 April 11].

Heath GW, Brownson RC, Kruger J, et al. ©2006. The effectiveness of urban design and land use and transport policies and practices to increase physical activity: a systematic review. J Phys Act Health 3(Suppl 1):S55-76. Available at: http://www.aapca3.org/resources/archival/060306/jpah.pdf [PDF - 192 KB] [Accessed 2011 Apr 12].

Kochtitzky CS, Freeland AL, and Yen IH. 2011. Ensuring mobility-supporting environments for an aging population: critical actors and collaborations. J Aging Res 2011: 138931. Available at: http://www.hindawi.com/journals/jar/2011/138931/

Accessed 2011 Jul 21].

Saelens BE and Handy SL. 2008. Built environment correlates of walking: a review. Med Sci Sports Exerc 40(7 Suppl): S550–66. Available at: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2921187/ [Accessed 2013 Nov 8].

Saelens BE, Sallis JF, Frank LD. 2003. Environmental correlates of walking and cycling: Findings from the transportation, urban design, and planning literatures. Soc Behavior Med, 25(2): 80–91. Available at: http://link.springer.com/article/10.1207%2FS15324796ABM2502_03 [Accessed 2012 Feb 26].

Watson M and Dannenberg AL. 2008. Investment in safe routes to school projects: public health benefits for the larger community. Prev Chronic Dis 5(3): A90. Available at: http://www.cdc.gov/pcd/issues/2008/jul/07_0087.htm [Accessed 2011 Jul 19].

Federal Recommendations/Strategies/Reports

Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. 2010. Recommendations for Improving health through transportation policy. Available at http://www.cdc.gov/transportation/docs/FINAL%20CDC%20Transportation%20Recommendations-4-28-2010.pdf [PDF - 93 KB] [Accessed 2012 Feb 26].

Guide to Community Preventive Services. 2011. Environmental and policy approaches to increase physical activity: community-scale urban design land use policies. http://www.thecommunityguide.org/pa/environmental-policy/communitypolicies.html [Accessed 2012 Aug 6].

White House Task Force on Childhood Obesity. 2010. Report to the President: Solving the problem of childhood obesity within a generation. May:49-63. Available at: http://www.letsmove.gov/sites/letsmove.gov/files/TaskForce_on_Childhood_Obesity_May2010_FullReport.pdf [PDF - 3.2 MB] [Accessed 2012 Feb 26].

US Department of Transportation. 2010. Federal Highway Administration. Policy statement on bicycle and pedestrian accommodation regulations and recommendations. Available at: http://www.fhwa.dot.gov/environment/bicycle_pedestrian/overview/policy_accom.cfm [Accessed 2013 Nov 8].

Literature from Supporting Organizations

Active Living Research. Designing for active transportation. 2005. San Diego, CA. Available at: http://www.rwjf.org/en/research-publications/find-rwjf-research/2005/02/designing-for-active-transportation.html [Accessed 2013 Nov 8].

[ITE] Institute of Transportation Engineers. 2010. Designing walkable urban thoroughfares: A context sensitive approach. Washington DC: Publication No. RP-036A. Available at: http://www.ite.org/css/FactSheet5.pdf [Accessed 2014 Sept 25].

 

2. Access to parks - examine walking access to parks

  • Determine the percent of population with a walk route of less than a mile to a park entrance from home. HIA #8, #9, #10

Access to Parks Source Materials

 

References

 

Bedimo-Rung A, Mowen A, Cohen D. 2005. The significance of parks to physical activity and public health: A conceptual model. Am J Prev Med 28(2):159–68. Doi: 10.1016/j.amepre.2004.10.024. Available at: http://activelivingresearch.org/files/Bedimo-Rung_AJPM_2005.pdf [PDF - 246 KB] [Accessed 2013 Nov 8].

Bowler DE, Buyung-Ali LM, Knight TM, et al. 2010. A systematic review of evidence for the added benefits to health of exposure to natural environments. BMC Public Health 10(1):456. Available at: http://www.biomedcentral.com/content/pdf/1471-2458-10-456.pdf [PDF - 393 KB] [Accessed 2013 Nov 8].

Grow HM, Saelens BE, Kerr J, et al. 2008. Where are youth active? Roles of proximity, active transport, and built environment. Med Sci Sports Exerc Dec 40(12):2071-9. Available at: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18981942 [Accessed 2012 April 11].

Lachowycz, K. & Jones, A. ( 2011). Greenspace and obesity: a systematic review of the evidence. Obes Rev 12:e183–e189. doi: 10.1111/j.1467-789X.2010.00827.x. Available at: http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/j.1467-789X.2010.00827.x/pdf [PDF - 90 KB] [Accessed 2012 Aug 15].

Lee A and Maheswaran R. 2011. The health benefits of urban green spaces: a review of the evidence. J Pub Health. 22 (2), 212-222. doi:10.1093/pubmed/fdq068. Available at: http://www.wales.nhs.uk/sites3/Documents/740/Health benefits of urban green spaces - review (2011).pdf [PDF - 176 KB] [Accessed 2012 April 12].

Wendel AM, Dannenberg AL, Frumkin H. 2008. Designing and building healthy places for children. Int J Environ Health Vol. 2(3/4):338–55. Available at: http://www.cdc.gov/healthyplaces/publications/designing_and_building_healthy_places_for_children.pdf [PDF - 394 KB] [Accessed 2012 Aug 15].

Federal Recommendations/Strategies/Reports 

US Environmental Protection Agency. Partnership for sustainable communities: A year of progress for American communities. 2010. Available at: http://www.epa.gov/dced/pdf/partnership_year1.pdf [PDF - 1.8 MB] [Accessed 2012 February 6].

White House Task Force on Childhood Obesity. Solving the problem of childhood obesity within a generation: The White House Task Force on Childhood Obesity Report to the President. May 2010. Available at http://www.letsmove.gov/sites/letsmove.gov/files/TaskForce_on_Childhood_Obesity_May2010_FullReport.pdf [PDF - 3.2 MB] [Accessed 2012 Feb 6].

America’s great outdoors: A promise to future generations. Available at: http://www.doi.gov/americasgreatoutdoors/documents/upload/AGO-Report-Chapters-1-10-Only-Text-Only-2-7-11.pdf [PDF - 393 KB] [Accessed 2013 Nov 6].

Literature from Supporting Organizations:

Active Living Research. 2010. Parks, playgrounds, and active living. Available at: http://activelivingresearch.org/files/Synthesis_Mowen_Feb2010_0.pdf [PDF - 598 KB] [Accessed 2013 Nov 8].

Godbey G. 2009. Outdoor recreation, health, and wellness: Understanding and enhancing the relationship. Resources for the Future. Available at: http://www.rff.org/Publications/Pages/PublicationDetails.aspx?PublicationID=20803 [Accessed 2012 April 12].

Harkin P. 2006.The excellent city park system: What makes it great and how to get there. [report]. The Trust for Public Land. Available at: http://cloud.tpl.org/pubs/ccpe_excellentcityparks_2006.pdf [PDF - 1.79 MB] [Accessed 14 Feb 2012].

Kuo FE. 2010. Parks and other green environments: Essential components of a healthy human habitat: National Recreation and Park Association. Available at: http://www.nrpa.org/uploadedFiles/nrpa.org/Publications_and_Research/Research/Papers/MingKuo-Summary.PDF [PDF - 312 KB] [Accessed 2012 Aug 15].

Nowak D and Heisler G. 2010. Air quality effects of urban trees and parks. National Recreation and Park Association. Available at: http://www.nrpa.org/uploadedFiles/nrpa.org/Publications_and_Research/Research/Papers/Nowak-Heisler-Summary.pdf [PDF - 324 KB] . [Accessed 2013 Nov 8].

 

3. Safety - address safety concerns such as crime, vandalism, traffic, maintenance, and management:

  • Create natural surveillance along trails, in parks, and along abutting streets, connecting streets, and street crossings
  • Ensure proper sight lines and increase “eyes on the street” to facilitate roadway surveillance around parks and trails
  • Include entrances and windows that face the park or trail in adjacent buildings
  • Design park/trail paths to support multiple uses while ensuring users feel safe
  • Install emergency call boxes or cameras, or both, in parks and trails
  • Consider the effect of pathway width on social supports like walking in groups

Safety Source Materials

 

Peer Reviewed Literature

 

Crowe TD and Zahm DL. 1994. Crime prevention through environmental design. NAHB Land Development. Fall:22–27. Available at: http://www.popcenter.org/Responses/closing_streets/P DFs/Crowe_Zahm_1994.pdf [PDF - 105 KB]. [Accessed 2012 Feb 26].

Foster S and Giles-Corti B. 2008. The built environment, neighborhood crime and constrained physical activity: An exploration of inconsistent findings. Preventive Medicine 47: 241–251. doi:10.1016/j.ypmed.2008.03.017. Available at: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18499242 [Accessed 2013 Nov 8].

Harrison RA, Gemmell I, Heller RF. 2007.The population effect of crime and neighborhood on physical activity: an analysis of 15 461 adults. Epidemiol Community Health, 61:34-39 doi:10.1136/ jech.2006.048389. Available at: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2465585/ [Accessed 2013 Nov 8].

Heath GW, Brownson RC, Kruger J, et al. 2006. The effectiveness of urban design and land use and transport policies and practices to increase physical activity: a systematic review. J Phys Act Health 3(Suppl 1):S55–76. Available at: http://www.aapca3.org/resources/archival/060306/jpah.pdf [PDF - 192 KB] [Accessed 2013 Nov 8].

Loukaitou-Sideris, A. 2006. Is it safe to walk? Neighborhood safety and security considerations and their effects on walking." Journal 0f Planning Literature 20(3): 219-232. doi: 10.1177/0885412205282770. Available at: http://jpl.sagepub.com/content/20/3/219.abstract [Accessed 2013 Nov 8].

Luymes DT and Tamminga K. 1995. Integrating public safety and use into planning urban greenways. Landscape and Urban Planning 33, 1 -3:391–400. Available at: http://www.carmelacanzonieri.com/3740/readings/Greenways/integrating%20public%20use%20into %20planning%20urban%20greenways.pdf [PDF - 780 KB]. [Accessed 2012 Feb 26].

McGinn AP, Evenson KR, Herring AH, Huston SL, Rodriguez DA. 2008. The association of perceived and objectively measured crime with physical activity: a cross-sectional analysis. J Phys Act Health 5(1):117–31.

References regarding Natural Surveillance/Crime Prevention through Environmental Design (“Eyes on the Street”) 

Crowe TD and Zahm DL. 1994. Crime prevention through environmental design. NAHB Land Development Fall:22–27. Available at: http://www.popcenter.org/Responses/closing_streets/P DFs/Crowe_Zahm_1994.pdf [PDF - 105 KB]. [Accessed 2012 Feb 26].

Jacobs J. 1961. The death and life of great American cities. New York: Random House.

Giles-Corti B, Kelty SF, Zubrick SR, et al. 2009. Encouraging walking for transport and physical activity in children and adolescents: How important is the built environment? Sports Med 39(12):995–1009. Available at: http://link.springer.com/article/10.2165%2F11319620-000000000-00000/fulltext.html [Accessed 2013 Nov 8].

Federal Recommendations/Strategies/Reports

Guide to Community Preventive Services. Environmental and policy approaches: street-scale urban design and land use policies. Available at: http://www.thecommunityguide.org/pa/environmental-policy/streetscale.html [Accessed 2012 Aug 6].

Literature from Supporting Organizations

Farrington D, Welsh B. 2007. Improved street lighting and crime prevention. Swedish Council for Crime Prevention, Information and Publications. Available at: http://www.eucpn.org/download/?file=bra_streetlighting.pdf&type=8‎ [Accessed 2013 Nov 8].

 

4. Traffic injuries - encourage park and adjacent neighborhood design that protects users traveling to the parks/trails and users within parks from motor vehicle crashes:

  • Account for pedestrian and bicycle vulnerabilities with streetscape design around and in parks and on trails, emphasizing increased visibility, route signage, and buffer zones
  • Reduce traffic speeds adjacent to parks and trails (add specific methods – e.g. traffic calming)
  • Street crossings along walk routes are designed so that pedestrians cross no more than 2 lanes of traffic without a protected refuge area.

Traffic Injuries Source Materials

 

Peer Reviewed Literature

 

Ewing R, Dumbaugh E. 2009. The built environment and traffic safety: A review of empirical evidence. Journal of Planning Literature 123(4):347–67. Available at: http://jpl.sagepub.com/content/23/4/347.full.pdf+html [Accessed 2013 Nov 8].

Grundy C, Steinbach R, Edwards P, et al. 2009. Effect of 20 mph traffic speed zones on road injuries in London, 1986–2006: controlled interrupted time series analysis. BMJ 339:b4469. Available at: http://www.bmj.com/content/339/bmj.b4469 [Accessed 2013 Nov 8].

Kwan I, Mapstone J. 2006. Interventions for increasing pedestrian and cyclist visibility for the prevention of death and injuries. Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, Issue 4. Art. No.: CD003438. DOI: 10.1002/14651858.CD003438.pub2. Available at: http://www.thecochranelibrary.com/userfiles/ccoch/file/Safety_on_the_road/CD003438.pdf [PDF - 527 KB] [Accessed 2013 Nov 8].

Owen N, Humpel N, Leslie E, et al. 2004. Understanding environmental influences on walking. Am J Prev Med. 27(1): p. 67–76. Available at: http://www.ipenproject.org/documents/publications_docs/owenwalkreview.pdf [PDF - 118 KB] [Accessed 2013 Nov 8].

Wolf, K L and Bratton NJ. 2006. Urban trees and traffic safety: Considering US roadside policy and crash data. Arboric Urban For, 32, 4, 170–79. Available at: http://www.fs.fed.us/pnw/pubs/journals/pnw_2006_wolf001.pdf [PDF - 178 KB] [Accessed 2013 Nov 8].

Federal Recommendations/Strategies/Reports

Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. 2010. Recommendations for improving health through transportation policy. Available at: http://www.cdc.gov/transportation/docs/FINAL%20CDC%20Transportation%20Recommendations-4-28-2010.pdf [PDF - 93 KB] [Accessed 2011 May 25].

Guide to Community Preventive Services. 2011. Environmental and policy approaches to increase physical activity: Street-scale urban design land use policies. Available at http://www.thecommunityguide.org/pa/environmental-policy/streetscale.html [Accessed 2011 May 16].

Nabors D, Schneider R, Leven D, et al. 2008. Pedestrian safety guide for transit agencies. US Department of Transportation, Federal Highway Administration. FHWA-SA-07-017. Available at: http://safety.fhwa.dot.gov/ped_bike/ped_transit/ped_tra nsguide/about.cfm [Accessed 2011 Jul 29].

US Department of Transportation. 2008. Federal Highway Administration. Medians and pedestrian refuge areas in urban and suburban areas: Guidance memorandum on consideration and implementation of proven safety countermeasures. Available at: http://safety.fhwa.dot.gov/policy/memo071008/#ped_refuge [Accessed 2011 Jul 18].

UNC Highway Safety Research Center, Westat VHB. 2010. Pedestrian safety program strategic plan: Background report. Available at: http://safety.fhwa.dot.gov/ped_bike/pssp/background/bac kground092010.pdf [PDF - 1.8 MB] [Accessed 2011 Jul 29].

 

Tools

 

US Department of Transportation. 2007. Federal Highway Administration. Pedestrian road safety audit guidelines and prompt lists. Available at: http://katana.hsrc.unc.edu/cms/downloads/PedRSA.reduced.pdf [PDF - 1.85 MB]. [Accessed 2011 July 18].

This report is a guide to pedestrian needs in assessing roadway safety. A road safety audit is a formal safety performance evaluation of an existing or future roadway or intersection.

Pedestrian and Bicycle Crash Analysis Tool created by the Pedestrian and Bicycle Information Center and funded by the US Department of Transportation, Federal Highway Administration. Available for free download from http://www.walkinginfo.org/facts/pbcat/index.cfm

This tool assists in the development of databases that track location and crash type for traffic crashes involving bicyclists and pedestrians. The tool can analyze data and produce reports on crash characteristics.

 

5. Inclusive access - Provide adequate physical access to the park for everyone, regardless of user ability:

  • Parks and trails should meet or exceed Americans with Disabilities Act (ADA) standards

Inclusive Access Source Materials

 

Peer Reviewed Literature

 

Federal Recommendations/Strategies/Reports

Axelson P, et al. 1999. Designing sidewalks and trails for access—Part I of II: Review of existing guidelines and practices. Federal Highways Transportation Administration. Available at: http://www.fhwa.dot.gov/environment/sidewalks/ [Accessed 2012 Feb 1].

Federal Highway Administration. (n.d.) Environment: Chapter 14. Shared use path design. US Department of Transportation. Available at: http://www.fhwa.dot.gov/environment/sidewalk2/sidewalks214.htm [Accessed 2012 Apr 10].

National Park Service (2008) Universal design: Applying the principles in park settings–PARTICIPANT GUIDE. Available at: http://www.nps.gov/training/tel/Guides/universal_design_ pg_03142008.pdf [PDF - 46 KB] [Accessed 2012 Feb 3].

Literature from Supporting Organizations

International City/County Management Association. 2005. Active living and social equity: Creating healthy communities for all residents. A Guide for Local Governments. January 2005. Available at: http://bookstore.icma.org/freedocs/Active%20Living%20and%20Social%20Equity.pdf [PDF - 403 KB] [Accessed 2011 Jul 21].

This guide to healthy community design includes strategies for promoting livability and social equity for all people, regardless of income, race, sex, ethnicity, age, or ability.

Tools

 

Resources for trail design guidelines available at: http://www.fhwa.dot.gov/environment/recreational_tra ils/publications/#Trail [Accessed 2012 Aug 14].

Architectural and Transportation Barriers Compliance Board. 2007. Proposed Architectural Barriers Act Accessibility Guidelines for Outdoor Developed Areas. Available at https://www.federalregister.gov/articles/2013/09/26/2013-22876/architectural- barriers-act-accessibility-guidelines-outdoor-developed-areas [Accessed 2013 Nov 8].

Public Rights-of-Way Access Advisory Committee. 2007. Special report: Accessible public rights-of-way planning and design for alterations. Available at: http://www.ewgateway.org/pdffiles/library/trans/ada/adaspe cialrpt.pdf [PDF - 16.8 MB] [Accessed 2013 Nov 8].

San Francisco Department of Public Health, Program on Health, Equity and Sustainability. 2008. An assessment of the physical condition of streets and intersections. San Francisco Pedestrian Environmental Quality Index (PEQI). Environmental Health Section.

 

6. Equitable access - ensure equality in distribution of park access throughout the community among diverse populations:

  • Ensure public participation in park/trail planning and decision making
  • Ensure policies regarding park access take into account the walk-route distance when measuring park access
  • Support creation of park/trails that are accessible and relevant to surrounding neighborhoods and diverse populations
  • Include health equity in criteria used to evaluate and prioritize projects

Equitable Access Source Materials

 

Peer Reviewed Literature

 

Cohen D, McKenzie T, Sehgal A, et al. 2007. Contribution of parks to physical activity. Am J Pub Health 97:509–14. Available at: http://ajph.aphapublications.org/doi/full/10.2105/AJPH.2005.072447 [Accessed 2013 Nov 8].

Cohen D, Sehgal A, et al. 2006. Park use and physical activity in a sample of public parks in the City of Los Angeles. Santa Monica, CA, RAND Corporation. Available at: http://www.rand.org/content/dam/rand/pubs/technical_reports/2006/RAND_TR357.pdf [PDF - 487 KB] [Accessed 2012 Apr 10].

Diez-Roux A, Evenson K, McGinn A, et al. 2007. Availability of recreational resources and public activity in adults. Am J Pub Health 97(3):493–99. Available at: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC1805019/?tool=pubmed [Accessed 2012 Apr 11].

Frank L, Kerr J, Chapman J, et al. 2007. Urban form relationships with walk trip frequency and distance among youth. Am J Health Promn 21(4):S1–S7. Available at: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17465175 [Accessed 2012 Apr 11].

Gobster P. 2001. Neighborhood-open space relationships in metropolitan planning: A look across four scales of concern. Local Environment 6(2):199–212. Available at: http://nrs.fs.fed.us/pubs/jrnl/2001/nc_2001_gobster_004.pdf [PDF - 128 KB] [Accessed 2012 April 11].

Gordon-Larsen P, Nelson M C, Page P, et al. 2006. Inequality in the built environment underlies key health disparities in physical activity and obesity. Pediatrics 117(2): 417–24. Available at: http://pediatrics.aappublications.org/content/117/2/417.abstract [Accessed 2012 April 11].

Kacyznski AT, Potwarka LR, Smale BJA, Havitz ME (2009). Association of parkland proximity with neighborhood and park-based physical activity: Variations by gender and age. Leisure Sciences b. 31 (2) 174–91. Doi: 10.1080/01490400802686045.

Maas J, Verheij RA, Groenewegen PP, et al. 2006. Green space, urbanity, and health: how strong is the relation? J Epidemiol Comm Health 60(7): 587–92. Available at: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2566234/ [Accessed 2012 April 11].

Mowen A and Confer J. 2003. The relationship between perceptions, distance, and socio-demographic characteristics upon public use of an urban park “in-fill.” J Park Recreate Admi, 23(3), 58–74. Available at: http://js.sagamorepub.com/jpra/article/view/1499 [Accessed 2012 April 11].

Rosenberger RS, Bergerson TR, Kline JD. 2009. Macro-linkages between health and outdoor recreation: The role of parks and recreation providers. J Park Recreate Admi 27(3), 8–20. Available at: http://www.fsl.orst.edu/lulcd/Publicationsa lpha_files/Rosenberger_etal_2009_JPRA.pdf [PDF - 196 KB] [Accessed 2012 April 11].

Literature from Supporting Organizations

American Society of Civil Engineers. 2009. Report card for America’s infrastructure—public parks and recreation—2009 grade C-. Available at: http://www.infrastructurereportcard.org/2009/fact-sheet/public-parks-and-recreation [Accessed 2013 Nov 8].

Garcia R and Strongin S. 2007. Healthy parks, schools and communities: mapping green access and equity of Southern California: The City Project. Available at: http://www.mapsportal.org/thecityproject/socalma p/ComprehensiveSocalReport.html. [Accessed 2012 Feb 14]

Godbey G and Mowen A. 2010. The benefits of physical activity provided by park and recreation services: The scientific Evidence. [Research Series] National Recreation and Parks Association. Available at: http://www.nrpa.org/uploadedFiles/nrpa.org/Publications_and_Research/Research/Papers/Godbey-Mowen-Research-Paper.pdf [PDF - 673 KB] [Accessed 2013 Nov 8].

Partnership for Prevention. Places for Physical Activity: Facilitating Development of a Community Trail and Promoting Its Use to Increase Physical Activity Among Youth and Adults—An Action Guide. The Community Health Promotion Handbook: Action Guides to Improve Community Health. Washington, DC: Partnership for Prevention; 2008. http://www.prevent.org/data/files/initiatives/communitytrail.pdf [PDF - 2 MB] [Accessed 2013 Nov 18].

Sherer P. 2006. The benefits of parks: Why America needs more city parks and open space. [report] Trust for Public Lands. Available at: http://cloud.tpl.org/pubs/benefits-park-benfits- white-paperl2005.pdf [PDF - 1.24 MB] [Accessed 2012 April 11].

Tools

 

National Environmental Public Health Tracking Program: http://www.cdc.gov/nceh/tracking/default.htm

 

7. Multi-functional - design park sites to promote a variety of uses and facilities

  • Provide multiple amenities in parks to attract users
  • Provide a range of facilities with a wide variety of uses that draws diverse populations throughout the day and seasons of the year.
  • Provide site facilities/features in park sites such as seating, drinking fountains, shaded areas, open play fields, picnic areas, and trash receptacles
  • Better utilize existing play spaces. Enter into Joint Use Agreements that allow area school grounds to be used by the general public during non-school daylight hours
  • Explore using public/private part¬nerships for enhanced food experiences to enliven parks and reinforce them as places of community gathering, e.g., farmer’s markets/community gardens
  • Provide structured classes and activities within park sites to encourage community use

Multi-functional Source Materials

 

Peer Reviewed Literature

 

Floyd M, Spengler J, Maddock J, et al. 2008. Environmental and social correlates of physical activity in neighborhood parks: An observational study in Tampa and Chicago. Leisure Sciences 30(4):360–75. Available at: http://www.tandfonline.com/doi/abs/10.1080/0149040080216515 6#preview [Accessed 2012 Apr 11].

Grow HM, Saelens BE, Kerr J, et al. 2008. Where are youth active? Roles of proximity, active transport, and built environment. Med Sci Sports Exerc Dec 40(12):2071-9. Available at: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18981942 [Accessed 2012 April 11].

Kaczynski A and Henderson K. 2007. Environmental Correlates of Physical Activity: A Review of Evidence about Parks and Recreation. Leisure Sciences 29(4): 315–54. Available at: http://www.med.upenn.edu/beat/docs/Kac zynskiandHenderson2008environmentandparksreview.pdf [PDF - 185 KB] [Accessed 2011 April 11].

Kaczynski A, Potwarka L, Saelens B. 2008. Association of park size, distance, and features with physical activity in neighborhood parks. Am J Pub Health 98(8), 1451–56. Available at: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18556600 [Accessed 2012 April 11].

McCormack G, Rock M, Toohey A, et al. 2010. Characteristics of urban parks associated with park use and physical activity: a review of the qualitative research. Health Place 16:712–26. Available at: http://www.med.upenn.edu/beat/docs/McCormack2010Heal thPlaceparkuseandPA.pdf [PDF - 240 KB] [Accessed 2013 Nov 8].

Task Force on Community Preventive Services. 2002. Recommendations to increase physical activity in communities. Am J Prev Med, 22 (4S):67–72. Available at: http://www.thecommunityguide.org/pa/pa-ajpm- recs.pdf [PDF - 70 KB] [Accessed 2012 Apr 11].

Federal Recommendations/Strategies/Reports

Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Communities putting prevention to work: communities addressing obesity. Available at: http://www.cdc.gov/CommunitiesPuttingPreventiontoW ork/communities/obesity.htm [Accessed 2012 April 11].

Khan LK, Sobush K, Keener D, et al. Recommended Community Strategies and Measurements to Prevent Obesity in the United States. MMWR. July 24, 2009;58 (RR07);1–26. Available at: http://www.cdc.gov/mmwr/preview/mmwrhtml/rr5807a1.htm [Accessed 2012 April 11].

Literature from Supporting Organizations

Cohen D, Sehgal A, et al. 2006. Park use and physical activity in a sample of public parks in the City of Los Angeles. Santa Monica, CA, RAND Corporation. Available at: http://www.rand.org/content/dam/rand/pubs/techni cal_reports/2006/RAND_TR357.pdf [PDF - 487 KB] [Accessed 2012 April 10].

Godbey G. and Mowen A. 2010. The benefits of physical activity provided by park and recreation services: The scientific evidence. [Research Series] National Recreation and Parks Association. Available at: http://www.nrpa.org/uploadedFiles/nrpa.org/Publications_and_Research/Research/Papers/Godbey-Mowen-Research-Paper.pdf [PDF - 6.3 KB] [Accessed 2013 Nov 8].

Rung A, Mowen A, Broyles S, et al. 2010. The influence of park conditions and supporting features on park-based physical activity. Presented at the Active Living Research Annual Conference, San Diego, CA. Available at: http://www.activelivingresearch.org/files/2010_ParksTrails_R ung.pdf [PDF - 716 KB] [Accessed 2012 April 11].

Witt P and Caldwell L. 2010. The rationale for recreation services for youth: An evidenced based approach. National Parks and Recreation Association. Available at: http://www.nrpa.org/uploadedFiles/nrpa.org/Publications_and_Research/Research/Papers/Witt-Caldwell-Full-Research-Paper.pdf [PDF - 966 KB] [Accessed 2013 Nov 8].

Potential Resources for Creating Additional Park Areas

Neighborhood Revitalization Initiative – (Sponsoring Federal Agencies: White House Initiative with Cross Agency Participation) Available at: http://www.whitehouse.gov/sites/default/files/nri_description. pdf [PDF - 418 KB] [Accessed 2012 Aug 15].

Sustainable Communities Partnership’s regional planning grants (Sponsoring Federal Agencies: Department of Housing and Urban Development [HUD], DOT, and EPA). Available at: http://portal.hud.gov/hudportal/ HUD?src=/program_offices/sustainable_housing_communities/sustainable_communities_regional_planning_grants [Accessed 2012 Aug 15].

Transportation Investment Generating Economic Recovery (TIGER) grants – (Sponsoring Federal Agency: US Department of Transportation). Available at: http://www.dot.gov/tiger/ [Accessed 2012 Aug 15].

Urban and Community Forestry Program – (Sponsoring Federal Agencies: US Department of Agriculture). Available at: http://www.fs.fed.us/ucf/nucfac.html#grants [Accessed 2012 Aug 15].

Urban Waters Federal Partnership (Sponsoring Federal Agencies: US EPA-led partnership multiple other federal agencies). Available at: http://www.urbanwaters.gov/ [Accessed 2012 Aug 15].

Model Joint-Use Agreements

Change Lab Solutions. Model Joint Use Agreement Resources: Increasing physical activity by opening up school grounds. Available at: http://changelabsolutions.org/node/3224 [Accessed 2012 Aug 23].

 

8. Physical Activity - provide infrastructure within park sites that encourage physical activity:

  • Create trails within parks
  • Incorporate a variety of facilities that require varying level of difficulty, such as sports facilities (ball fields, volleyball courts, basketball, etc.); fitness stations and trails with varying difficulty, slopes, and surface materials; skate parks; and open field areas for running and unstructured play

Physical Activity Source Materials

 

Peer Reviewed Literature

 

American Academy of Pediatrics, Committee on Environmental Health. 2009. The built environment: Designing communities to promote physical activity in children. Pediatrics 123(6):1591–98. doi:10.1542/peds.2009-0750. Available at: http://www.pediatrics.org/cgi/doi/10.1542/peds.2009-0750 [Accessed 2012 Feb 14].

Brennan Ramirez L, Hoehner C, Brownson R, et al. 2006. Indicators of activity-friendly communities: An evidence-based consensus process. Am J Prev Med 31(6):1-10. doi:10.1016/j.amepre.2006.07.026. Available at: http://www.ajpmonline.org/article/S0749-3797(06)00305-9/fulltext [Accessed 2012 Feb 14].

Brownson R, Hoehner C, Day K, et al. 2009. Measuring the built environment for physical activity: State of the science. Am J Prev Med 36(4) Supp:S99–S123.e12. Available at: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2844244/pdf/nihms-105856.pdf [PDF - 447 KB] [Accessed 2013 Nov 8].

Cohen DA, McKenzie T, Sehgal A, et al. 2007. How do public parks contribute to physical activity? Am J Pub Health 97:1–6. Available at: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17267728 [Accessed 2012 April 11].

Ding D, Sallis J, Kerr J, et al. 2011. Neighborhood environment and physical activity among youth: A review. Am J Prev Med 41 (4), 442–455. Available at: http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S07493797110 04594 [Accessed 2012 April 11].

Giles-Corti, Broomhall B, Knuiman M, et al. 2005. Increasing walking: How important is distance to, attractiveness, and size of public open space? Am J Prev Med 2005;28(2S2):169–76. Available at: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15694525 [Accessed 2012 April 11].

Heath GW, Brownson RC, Kruger J, et al. 2006. The effectiveness of urban design and land use and transport policies and practices to increase physical activity: a systematic review. J Phys Act Health 3(Suppl 1):S55-76. Available at: http://www.aapca3.org/resources/archival/060306/jpah.pdf [PDF - 192 KB] [Accessed 2012 April 11].

Kaczynski A and Henderson K. 2007. Environmental correlates of physical activity: A review of evidence about parks and recreation. Leisure Sciences, 29(4): 315–354. Available at: http://www.med.upenn.edu/beat/docs/Kac zynskiandHenderson2008environmentandparksreview.pdf [PDF - 185 KB] [Accessed 2012 April 10].

Kaczynski A, Potwarka L, Saelens B. 2008. Association of park size, distance, and features with physical activity in neighborhood parks. Am J Pub Health 98(8):1451–56. Available at: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18556600 [Accessed 2012 April 11].

Kahn EB, Ramsey LT, Brownson R, et al. 2002. The effectiveness of interventions to increase physical activity: a systematic review. Am J Prev Med 22(4S):73–107. Available at: http://www.thecommunityguide.org/pa/pa-ajpm-evrev.pdf [PDF - 3.1 MB] [Accessed 2013 Nov 8].

Saelens BE and Handy SL. 2008. Built environment correlates of walking: a review. Med Sci Sports Exerc 40(7 Suppl): S550–66. Available at: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2921187/ [Accessed 2013 Nov 8].

Task Force on Community Preventive Services. 2002. Recommendations to increase physical activity in communities. Am J Prev Med 22 (4S):67–72. Available at: http://www.thecommunityguide.org/pa/pa-ajpm- recs.pdf [PDF - 70 KB] [Accessed 2012 April 11].

Task Force on Community Preventive Services. Physical Activity. 2005. In: Zaza S, Briss PA, Harris KW, eds. The Guide to community preventive services: What works to promote health? Atlanta GA: Oxford University Press, p. 80–113. Available at: http://www.thecommunityguide.org/library/book/Front-Matter.pdf [PDF - 219 KB] [Accessed 2013 Nov 8].

Federal Recommendations/Strategies/Reports

Guide to Community Preventive Services. 2010. Environmental and policy approaches to increase physical activity: transportation and travel policies and practices. Available at: http://www.thecommunityguide.org/pa/environmental-policy/travelpolicies.html [Accessed 2012 Apr 11].

Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. 2011. Communities putting prevention to work: communities addressing obesity. Available at: http://www.cdc.gov/CommunitiesPuttingPreventiontoW ork/communities/obesity.htm [Accessed 2012 Apr 11].

Institute of Medicine. 2005. Does the built environment influence physical activity? Examining the evidence. Washington DC: National Academies Press. Available at: http://books.nap.edu/openbook.php? record_id=11203&page=14 [Accessed 2011 May 16].

Kahn EB, Ramsey LT, Heath GW, et al. 2001. Increasing physical activity. A report on recommendations of the Task Force on Community Preventive Services. MMWR 50(RR-18):1-16. Available at: http://www.cdc.gov/mmwr/preview/mmwrhtml/rr5018a1.htm [Accessed 2013 Nov 8].

Literature from Supporting Organizations

Godbey G. and Mowen AJ. 2010. The benefits of physical activity provided by park and recreation services: The scientific Evidence. [Research Series] National Recreation and Parks Association. Available at: http://www.nrpa.org/uploadedFiles/nrpa.org/Publications_and_Research/Research/Papers/Godbey-Mowen-Research-Paper.pdf [PDF - 673 KB] [Accessed 2013 Nov 8].

Mowen AJ. 2010. Parks, playgrounds and active living. Robert Wood Johnson Foundation. Available at: http://activelivingresearch.org/files/Synthesis_Mowen_Feb201 0_0.pdf [PDF - 598 KB] [Accessed 2013 Nov 8].

 

Tools

 

New York City Department of Design and Construction. 2011. Active design guidelines. Available at: http://www.nyc.gov/html/ddc/html/design/active_design.shtml [Accessed 2012 Apr 11]. This is a manual of design strategies for buildings, streets, and urban spaces to promote physical activity and healthier lifestyles.

 

9. Social Cohesion - make parks serve as neighborhood gathering spaces and social destinations:

  • Provide park amenities that promote opportunities for gatherings
  • Allow permits to reserve parks and trails for activities and gatherings within the park or on surrounding streets
  • Design parks to accommodate festivals, street fairs, and other community events.
  • Support use of parks for community festivals, events, and gatherings

Social Cohesion Source Materials

 

Peer Reviewed Literature

 

Wood L, Frank LD, Giles-Corti B. 2010. Sense of community and its relationship with walking and neighborhood design. Soc Sci Med 70 (9):1381–90. Available at: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20189699 [Accessed 2012 April 11].

Peters K, Elands B, Buijs A. 2010. Social interactions in urban parks: Stimulating social cohesion? Urban Foresty & Urban Greening 9(2):93-100. Available at: http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S16188667090 00855 [Accessed 2012 Apr 11].

Bell S, Hamilton V, Montarzino A, et al. 2008.Greenspace and quality of life: a critical literature review. Greenspace Scotland. Available at: http://www.openspace.eca.ac.uk/pdf/appen dixf/OPENspacewebsite_APPENDIX_F_resource_9.pdf [PDF - 960 KB] [Accessed 2012 Apr 12].

Leyden KM. 2007. Social capital and the built environment: The importance of walkable neighborhoods. Am J Public Health 93(9):1546– 51. Available at: http://ajph.aphapublications.org/doi/pdf/10.2105/AJPH.93.9.1546 [Accessed 2012 Apr 11].

 

10. Mental Health - promote parks/trails designs that improve individual mental health:

  • Provide places within the park for relaxation and meditation to address: depression, stress reduction, and improved healing. HIA#11
  • Provide opportunities to observe other people.
  • Include strategies for increased views of greenspace, water, wildlife habitat for mental health benefits.

Mental Health Source Materials

 

References

 

Bell S, Hamilton V, Montarzino A, et al. 2008. Greenspace and quality of life: a critical literature review. Greenspace Scotland. Available at: http://www.openspace.eca.ac.uk/pdf/appen dixf/OPENspacewebsite_APPENDIX_F_resource_9.pdf [PDF - 960 KB] [Accessed 2012 April 12].

Faber Taylor A and Kuo F. 2006. Is contact with nature important for healthy child development? State of the evidence. In: Spencer C and Blades M, eds. Children and their environments: Learning, using and designing spaces. Cambridge UK: Cambridge University Press. Available at: http://lhhl.illinois.edu/all.scientific.articles.htm [Accessed 2012 Apr 12].

[HCNDACRSP] Health Council of the Netherlands and Dutch Advisory Council for Research on Spatial Planning Nature and the Environment. 2004. Nature and health: The influence of nature on social, psychological and physical wellbeing. The Hague: Health Council of the Netherlands and RMNO. Available at: http://www.gezondheidsraad.nl/sites/default/files/Nature%20and%20health.pdf [PDF - 648 KB] [Accessed 2012 Apr 12].

Kuo F. 2010. Parks and other green environments: Essential components of a healthy human habitat. Available at: http://www.nrpa.org/uploadedFiles/nrpa.org/Publications_and_Research/Research/Papers/MingKuo-Research-Paper.pdf [PDF - 4.5 MB] [Accessed 2013 Nov 15].

Maller C, Townsend M, St. Leger L, et al. 2008. The health benefits of contact with nature in a park context: A review of relevant literature. Available at: http://www.georgewright.org/262maller.pdf [PDF - 262 KB] [Accessed 2012 Apr 12].

Townsend M and Weerasuriya R. 2010. Beyond blue to green: The benefits of contact with nature for mental health and well-being. Melbourne, Australia. Available at: http://www.hphpcentral.com/wp-content/uploads/2010/09/beyondblue_togreen.pdf [PDF - 2.4 MB] [Accessed 2013 Nov 15].

Wolf KL and Flora K. 2010. Mental Health and Function—A Literature Review. In: Green cities: Good health. University of Washington College of the Environment. Available at: http://depts.washington.edu/hhwb/Thm_Mental.html [Accessed 2012 April 12].

 

11. Outreach - undertake education and engagement activities to promote park sites:

  • Promote parks/outdoor spaces through a variety of outreach efforts such as environmental education, historical education/conservation, and physical activity campaigns
  • Provide signs in strategic locations that provide information about the park facilities/features, programs, and contacts
  • Include park maps as part of entrance signage
  • Provide brochures site facilities and programs
  • Provide web links to maps showing park locations with links to key visitor informantion.

Outreach Source Materials

 

Peer Reviewed Literature

 

Hoehner C, Brownson R, Gramann J, et al. 2010. Parks promoting physical activity: Synthesis of findings from interventions in seven national parks. J Phys Act Health 7 Suppl (Mar) 1:S67-81.

Kahn E, et al. The effectiveness of interventions to increase physical activity: a systematic review. Am J Prev Med 2002, 22(4 Suppl):73–107. Available at: http://www.thecommunityguide.org/pa/pa- ajpm-evrev.pdf [PDF - 3.14 MB [Accessed 2012 Apr 12].

Mowen A, Payne L, Orsega-Smith B, et al. 2009. Assessing the health partnership practices of park and recreation agencies: Findings and implications from a national survey. J Park Recreat Admi 27(3):116–31. Available at: http://js.sagamorepub.com/jpra/article/view/1284 [Accessed 2012 Apr 11].

Task Force on Community Preventive Services. 2002. Recommendations to increase physical activity in communities. Am J Prev Med 22 (48):67–72. Available at: http://www.thecommunityguide.org/pa/pa-ajpm- recs.pdf [PDF - 70 KB] [Accessed 2012 Apr 12].

Literature from Supporting Organizations

 

Godbey G and Mowen A. 2010. The benefits of physical activity provided by park and recreation services: The scientific Evidence. [Research Series] National Recreation and Parks Association. Available at: http://www.nrpa.org/uploadedFiles/nrpa.org/Publications_and_Research/Research/Papers/Godbey-Mowen-Research-Paper.pdf [PDF - 673KB] [Accessed 2013 Nov 8].

Sample Campaigns

 

http://www.cdc.gov/youthcampaign/
http://www.letsmove.gov/lets-move-outside
http://www.nrpa.org/health

 

12. Evaluation - improve surveillance and general evaluation regarding use and benefits:

  • Monitor and evaluate park/trail use
  • Conduct pre-and post-tests or surveys
  • Identify project goals
  • Establish measures to evaluate impacts
  • Create an evaluation plan identifying who will be responsible for data collection, analysis, and reports.

Evaluation Source Materials

 

Peer Reviewed Literature

 

Hoehner C, Brownson R, Gramann J, et al. 2010. Parks promoting physical activity: Synthesis of findings from interventions in seven national parks. J Phys Act Health Suppl (Mar 7) 1:S67-81.

Literature from Supporting Organizations

 

Godbey G and Mowen A. 2010. The benefits of physical activity provided by park and recreation services: The Scientific Evidence. [Research Series] National Recreation and Parks Association. Available at: http://www.nrpa.org/uploadedFiles/nrpa.org/Publications_and_Research/Research/Papers/Godbey-Mowen-Research-Paper.pdf [PDF - 673 KB][Accessed 2013 Nov 8].

Christin, Z. B.-C. (2011). Economic Impact of Metro Parks Tacoma Ecosystem. Tacoma, WA: Earth Economics.

South Bend Parks and Recreation Department. Healthy Communities Surveillance and Management Toolkit, Feb 2012. Available at: http://www.gpred.org/siteadmin/images/files/file_113.pdf [PDF - 3.39 MB][Accessed 2013 Nov 15].

Amherst, Appomattox, Bedford, & Campbell Counties and Cities of Bedford and Lynchburg. Region 2000 Greenways & Blueways Plan 2003. Appendices B and C. Available at: http://www.region2000.org/assets/files/lgc/Greenways%20Blueways%20Plan.pdf [PDF - 9.7 MB].

Tools

 

Recommended Community Strategies and Measurements to Prevent Obesity in the United States MMWR http://www.cdc.gov/mmwr/pdf/rr/rr5807.pdf [PDF - 374 KB].

A number of evaluative tools are available on the Robert Wood Johnson Foundation Active Living Research Web site. Available at: http://activelivingresearch.org/toolsandresources/toolsandmea sures.

Active Where? Surveys. Available at http://activelivingresearch.org/node/11951

Environmental Assessment of Public Recreation Spaces (EAPRS). Available at: http://activelivingresearch.org/node/10651

Path Environment Audit Tool (PEAT). Available at: http://activelivingresearch.org/node/10652.

System for Observing Play and Recreation in Communities (SOPARC). Available at: http://activelivingresearch.org/node/10654

Core Measures of Trail Use. Available at: http://activelivingresearch.org/node/10653

Twin Cities Walking Survey. Available at: http://activelivingresearch.org/node/10619

Built Environment Assessment Training Institute, University of Pennsylvania. Available at: http://www.med.upenn.edu/beat/.

i-Tree, urban forest analysis software , US Forest Service. Available at: http://www.itreetools.org/

Physical Activity Resource Assessment tool (PARA). Available at: http://grants.hhp.coe.uh.edu/undo/?page_id=21

Organize stakeholder photograph exercises (target groups will submit photographs showing appropriate park/trail use and activities/benefits they want to model in their planned locations; also activities or experiences they see as barriers to park/trail use, including a brief statement describing each photograph)

Walking Audits—Numerous organizations, including Walkable and Livable Communities Institute. Available at: http://www.walklive.org/

The Pedestrian and Bicycle Information Center. Available at: http://www.walkinginfo.org/promote/strategies.cfm

San Francisco Board of Health Healthy Development Measurement Tool (HDMT). Available at: http://www.sustainablecommunitiesindex.org/

Visual Preference surveys:

Suggested Further Actions

 

Conduct systematic user counts
Administer original community/user surveys
Develop community design inventories
Conduct an assessment of the population that has a walk route of less than a half-mile to a park or trail entrance

 

13. Economy - ensure sustainability and economic growth:

  • Expand economic opportunities in surrounding neighborhoods. HIA #10, 11
  • Increase park sustainability through providing opportunities for affordable housing, park conservancies, and community gardening. HIA #9,

Economy Source Materials

 

References

 

Been V and Voicu I. 2008. The effect of community gardens on neighboring property values. Real Estate Economics 36(2):241–83. DOI: 10.1111/j.1540-6229.2008.00213.x. Available at: http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/j.1540-6229.2008.00213.x/full [Accessed 2012 April 12].

Wachter S. 2005. The determinates of neighborhood transportations in Philadelphia identification and analysis: the Kensington Pilot Study. University of Pennsylvania: The Wharton School. Available at: http://kabaffiliates.org/uploadedFiles/KAB_Affiliates.org/Wharton%20Study%20NK%20final.pdf [PDF - 225 KB] [Accessed 2012 April 12].

Literature from Supporting Organizations

 

Active Living Research. 2010. The economic benefits of open space, recreation facilities and walkable community–Research Synthesis. Robert Wood Johnson Foundation. Available at: http://activelivingresearch.org/economic-benefits-open-space- recreation-facilities-and-walkable-community-design. [Accessed 2013 Nov 15].

Been V and Voicu I. 2007. The effect of community gardens on neighboring property. New York University: Furman Center for Real Estate & Urban Policy. Available at: http://furmancenter.org/files/publicatio ns/The_Effect_of_Community_Gardens_combined.pdf [PDF - 186 KB]

Harkin P and Welle B. 2009. Measuring the economic value of a city park system. [online.] Trust for Public Lands. Available at: http://cloud.tpl.org/pubs/ccpe-econvalueparks-rpt.pdf [PDF - 516 KB]. [Accessed 2012 Apr 12].

H. John Heinz III School of Public Policy and Management. 2006. Vacant to vibrant: A guide to revitalizing vacant lots in your neighborhood. Carnegie Mellon University. Available at: http://gtechstrategies.org/wp-content/uploads/2013/10/VacanttoVibrant.pdf [PDF - 2.9 MB] [Accessed 2013 Nov 15].

H. John Heinz III School of Public Policy and Management. 2006. Policy recommendations: Greening vacant lots for Pittsburgh’s sustainable neighborhood revitalization. Carnegie Mellon University. Available at: http://gtechstrategies.org/wp-content/uploads/2013/10/PolicyReccommendations.pdf [PDF - 1.6 MB] [Accessed 2013 Nov 15].

Examples

 

Philadelphia Clean and Green Vacant Lot Initiative—Available at http://www.nextgreatcity.com/actions/lots

US Forest Service: urban forestry analysis and benefits assessment tool—Available at http://www.itreetools.org/

 

14. Air and Water Quality - implement mitigation strategies for parks and trails to improve: conservation, stormwater management, and hazard mitigation:

  • Design the potential park and trails to minimize areas with loose soil.
  • Promote tree canopy particularly along park boundaries.
  • Maintain forest patches.
  • Slope trails away from stream banks and where possible establish shallow swales along the uphill shoulder.
  • Utilize plants that are indigenous and do not require fertilizer.
  • Add a bus stop near the potential park so that people can utilize public transportation to get to the park.

Air and Water Quality Source Materials

 

References

 

Air and Water Quality

Environmental Impacts Analysis Unit Minnesota Department of Health Environmental Health Division. 2011. St. Louis Park Comprehensive Plan Health Impact Assessment. Minnesota Department of Health. Available at: http://www.health.state.mn.us/divs/hia/docs/slp_hia.pdf [PDF - 7.7 MB] [Accessed 2013 April 11].

Nowak, D. J. 1995. Urban Trees and Air Quality. USDA Forest Service, Syracuse, NY.

Sherer, P. (2006). The Benefits of Parks: why America needs more city parks and open space. Citizens for East Shore Park. Available at: http://www.eastshorepark.org/benefits_of_parks%20tpl.pdf [PDF - 1.24 MB] [Accessed 2012 Nov 6].

Stormwater Management and Ecological Habitat

Bell S, Hamilton V, Montarzino A, et al. 2008. Greenspace and quality of life: a critical literature review. Greenspace Scotland. Available at: http://www.openspace.eca.ac.uk/pdf/appen dixf/OPENspacewebsite_APPENDIX_F_resource_9.pdf [PDF - 960 KB] [Accessed 2012 12 Apr].

Flink CA, Searns RM, Schwarz LLaB, eds. 1993. Greenways: A guide to planning design and development. Washington DC: Island Press.

Grumbles BH. 2007. AAUEPA. Using green infrastructure to protect water quality in stormwater, CSO, nonpoint source and other water programs. Available at: http://water.epa.gov/infra structure/greeninfrastructure/upload/greeninfrastructure_h2oprograms_07.pdf [PDF - 162 KB] [Accessed 2013 Nov 15].

Tzoulas K, Korpela K, Venn S, et al. 2007. Promoting ecosystem and human health in urban areas using Green Infrastructure: A literature review. Landsc Urban Plan 81:167–78. Available at: http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0169204607000503 [Accessed 2012 Feb 14].

San Diego Civic Solutions. 2006. Canyonlands: The creation of San Diego Regional Canyonlands Park. Available at: http://www.sdcanyonlands.org/images/pdfs/canyonlandswhitepape r.pdf [PDF - 2.54 MB]. [Accessed 2013 Nov 15].

Tools

 

Conservation tools available at: http://conservationtools.org/

 
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