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2008 Adult Asthma Data: Prevalence Tables and Maps

Table C5
Adult Self-Reported Current Asthma Prevalence Rate (Percent)
and Prevalence (Number) by Race/Ethnicity and State or Territory: BRFSS 2008
StateRace/EthnicitySample
Size
Prevalence
(percent)
Standard
Error
95% CI*
(percent)
||
||
||
Prevalence
(number)
95% CI*
(number)
U.S. Total**White NH323,3918.80.10(8.6 - 8.9)||13,661,850(13,351,554 - 13,972,146)
U.S. Total**Black NH30,91810.00.35(9.3 - 10.6)||2,251,055(2,090,544 - 2,411,566)
U.S. Total**Other NH15,2347.20.42(6.3 - 8.0)||870,353(767,228 - 973,478)
U.S. Total**Multirace NH6,56214.00.91(12.2 - 15.8)||489,575(423,243 - 555,907)
U.S. Total**Hispanic23,9406.30.31(5.7 - 6.9)||2,022,426(1,822,963 - 2,221,889)
ALWhite NH4,4197.90.71(6.5 - 9.3)||193,238(157,779 - 228,697)
ALBlack NH1,7307.50.88(5.8 - 9.2)||64,946(49,990 - 79,903)
ALOther NH877.73.26(1.2 - 14.2)||5,101(783 - 9,420)
ALMultirace NH6212.34.69(2.9 - 21.7)||4,501(1,014 - 7,989)
ALHispanic723.8  ||2,011 
AKWhite NH1,8139.91.19(7.5 - 12.2)||33,785(25,492 - 42,078)
AKBlack NH341.6  ||154 
AKOther NH5596.31.40(3.5 - 9.0)||5,488(3,073 - 7,903)
AKMultirace NH926.32.55(1.2 - 11.3)||1,439(330 - 2,548)
AKHispanic7426.19.89(6.4 - 45.9)||5,487(298 - 10,677)
AZWhite NH4,24310.41.20(8.1 - 12.8)||342,178(260,879 - 423,478)
AZBlack NH714.4  ||4,359 
AZOther NH35110.42.80(4.9 - 15.9)||21,703(10,184 - 33,222)
AZMultirace NH508.1  ||3,591 
AZHispanic1,3368.01.92(4.2 - 11.7)||83,647(42,605 - 124,690)
ARWhite NH4,4827.90.57(6.8 - 9.1)||138,764(118,647 - 158,880)
ARBlack NH7039.61.64(6.4 - 12.8)||17,609(11,539 - 23,679)
AROther NH983.7  ||1,415 
ARMultirace NH8827.86.94(14.0 - 41.6)||9,823(3,738 - 15,907)
ARHispanic2054.52.19(0.2 - 8.8)||4,668(107 - 9,229)
CAWhite NH7,31410.60.51(9.6 - 11.6)||1,316,898(1,188,983 - 1,444,813)
CABlack NH41513.62.04(9.6 - 17.6)||157,486(107,918 - 207,054)
CAOther NH8897.31.25(4.9 - 9.8)||204,247(132,625 - 275,869)
CAMultirace NH21217.23.20(10.9 - 23.5)||83,008(49,690 - 116,325)
CAHispanic2,7115.20.52(4.1 - 6.2)||559,138(447,903 - 670,373)
COWhite NH9,6638.40.38(7.6 - 9.1)||220,192(199,836 - 240,549)
COBlack NH2616.71.94(2.9 - 10.5)||7,274(2,962 - 11,585)
COOther NH2838.61.84(5.0 - 12.2)||12,495(7,100 - 17,890)
COMultirace NH12117.05.48(6.2 - 27.9)||8,154(2,204 - 14,104)
COHispanic1,2056.50.84(4.8 - 8.1)||43,446(32,142 - 54,749)
CTWhite NH4,8768.30.65(7.1 - 9.6)||181,957(153,259 - 210,655)
CTBlack NH3879.52.50(4.6 - 14.4)||11,234(5,138 - 17,329)
CTOther NH2226.62.13(2.4 - 10.8)||8,314(2,954 - 13,673)
CTMultirace NH2036.317.70(0.0 - 73.3)||4,515(0 - 10,229)
CTHispanic48411.72.02(7.8 - 15.7)||24,335(15,735 - 32,936)
DEWhite NH3,2168.70.82(7.1 - 10.3)||44,269(35,784 - 52,754)
DEBlack NH47511.02.25(6.5 - 15.4)||9,311(5,336 - 13,285)
DEOther NH1033.9  ||869 
DEMultirace NH6912.05.25(1.5 - 22.5)||1,111(74 - 2,148)
DEHispanic8826.98.71(9.6 - 44.2)||7,293(1,388 - 13,198)
DCWhite NH1,9858.70.87(7.0 - 10.5)||14,527(11,572 - 17,483)
DCBlack NH1,77111.41.10(9.2 - 13.5)||24,109(19,246 - 28,973)
DCOther NH1259.32.65(4.0 - 14.5)||1,853(776 - 2,929)
DCMultirace NH3714.69.66(0.0 - 34.2)||725(0 - 1,815)
DCHispanic2214.41.59(1.2 - 7.5)||2,091(574 - 3,608)
FLWhite NH8,6626.40.42(5.6 - 7.2)||572,003(497,205 - 646,800)
FLBlack NH8326.51.30(4.0 - 9.1)||111,349(67,391 - 155,306)
FLOther NH3314.91.40(2.1 - 7.6)||40,003(17,616 - 62,390)
FLMultirace NH946.53.12(0.3 - 12.7)||10,120(795 - 19,445)
FLHispanic8038.01.67(4.7 - 11.3)||215,093(122,812 - 307,374)
GAWhite NH4,0088.00.62(6.8 - 9.2)||340,366(287,471 - 393,262)
GABlack NH1,2689.81.51(6.8 - 12.7)||193,362(131,423 - 255,301)
GAOther NH1526.52.06(2.4 - 10.6)||26,002(9,885 - 42,120)
GAMultirace NH525.6  ||5,745 
GAHispanic15110.34.69(1.1 - 19.6)||36,315(1,042 - 71,589)
HIWhite NH2,1407.80.81(6.2 - 9.4)||18,906(14,910 - 22,902)
HIBlack NH442.5  ||222 
HIOther NH2,2106.70.75(5.2 - 8.2)||26,416(20,457 - 32,376)
HIMultirace NH1,56114.01.25(11.5 - 16.4)||38,154(31,008 - 45,300)
HIHispanic39515.62.67(10.4 - 20.9)||10,667(6,715 - 14,620)
IDWhite NH4,6139.60.65(8.3 - 10.8)||90,001(77,708 - 102,294)
IDBlack NH133.8  ||233 
IDOther NH1208.92.79(3.4 - 14.4)||2,477(917 - 4,037)
IDMultirace NH538.6  ||1,066 
IDHispanic2322.0  ||1,680 
ILWhite NH4,0878.40.53(7.3 - 9.4)||539,136(470,644 - 607,628)
ILBlack NH53310.11.67(6.8 - 13.4)||136,839(90,588 - 183,090)
ILOther NH1284.01.77(0.6 - 7.5)||17,398(2,234 - 32,563)
ILMultirace NH6015.56.03(3.4 - 27.5)||24,639(3,836 - 45,442)
ILHispanic3143.30.99(1.3 - 5.2)||40,308(16,314 - 64,301)
INWhite NH3,9509.20.61(8.0 - 10.4)||365,943(318,003 - 413,883)
INBlack NH57011.32.92(5.6 - 17.1)||30,351(13,847 - 46,854)
INOther NH703.6  ||4,586 
INMultirace NH6815.95.54(4.9 - 27.0)||11,946(3,835 - 20,057)
INHispanic1608.13.74(0.7 - 15.4)||17,772(678 - 34,866)
IAWhite NH5,6617.40.46(6.5 - 8.3)||157,793(137,958 - 177,628)
IABlack NH8021.56.79(8.0 - 35.0)||8,129(2,142 - 14,115)
IAOther NH6220.77.11(6.5 - 35.0)||6,128(1,262 - 10,995)
IAMultirace NH2513.6  ||1,070 
IAHispanic1205.92.34(1.3 - 10.5)||4,217(883 - 7,551)
KSWhite NH7,5798.60.46(7.7 - 9.5)||151,117(134,895 - 167,339)
KSBlack NH29411.22.71(5.9 - 16.5)||8,793(4,346 - 13,239)
KSOther NH2065.91.56(2.8 - 8.9)||3,761(1,829 - 5,694)
KSMultirace NH9817.95.09(7.8 - 28.0)||5,571(2,337 - 8,805)
KSHispanic3687.82.12(3.6 - 11.9)||10,108(4,434 - 15,781)
KYWhite NH7,4229.10.48(8.1 - 10.0)||263,609(236,169 - 291,050)
KYBlack NH24215.24.27(6.8 - 23.6)||26,128(9,971 - 42,284)
KYOther NH9317.16.64(4.0 - 30.3)||11,200(1,601 - 20,799)
KYMultirace NH8415.74.46(6.8 - 24.5)||4,132(1,840 - 6,425)
KYHispanic1047.83.36(1.1 - 14.4)||3,282(498 - 6,066)
LAWhite NH4,4557.60.56(6.5 - 8.7)||158,141(134,660 - 181,622)
LABlack NH1,2929.41.23(7.0 - 11.8)||85,362(62,178 - 108,546)
LAOther NH1715.31.61(2.1 - 8.4)||6,751(2,703 - 10,799)
LAMultirace NH374.3  ||890 
LAHispanic13610.23.80(2.7 - 17.8)||12,363(2,725 - 22,000)
MEWhite NH6,43610.10.49(9.1 - 11.0)||99,077(89,449 - 108,705)
MEBlack NH210.0  ||0 
MEOther NH10117.56.51(4.6 - 30.4)||3,608(543 - 6,672)
MEMultirace NH7112.94.73(3.5 - 22.4)||1,592(357 - 2,826)
MEHispanic5819.86.69(6.4 - 33.2)||2,402(580 - 4,224)
MDWhite NH7,0989.40.51(8.4 - 10.4)||234,874(208,899 - 260,850)
MDBlack NH1,5379.51.05(7.5 - 11.6)||108,314(83,809 - 132,818)
MDOther NH2818.52.46(3.7 - 13.4)||20,739(8,344 - 33,134)
MDMultirace NH12317.54.55(8.5 - 26.5)||14,277(6,338 - 22,216)
MDHispanic2597.61.96(3.8 - 11.5)||20,984(10,099 - 31,869)
MAWhite NH16,2259.40.37(8.7 - 10.1)||372,616(343,239 - 401,992)
MABlack NH1,03811.11.98(7.2 - 15.0)||24,763(15,399 - 34,127)
MAOther NH9128.61.38(5.9 - 11.3)||26,260(17,786 - 34,735)
MAMultirace NH13916.54.14(8.3 - 24.7)||5,664(2,781 - 8,546)
MAHispanic1,94611.11.13(8.9 - 13.3)||45,285(36,071 - 54,499)
MIWhite NH7,2099.50.47(8.6 - 10.5)||563,801(507,154 - 620,447)
MIBlack NH1,50510.71.29(8.2 - 13.3)||91,665(69,095 - 114,236)
MIOther NH1828.82.50(3.9 - 13.8)||26,536(11,289 - 41,783)
MIMultirace NH19020.34.32(11.7 - 28.8)||35,755(18,676 - 52,834)
MIHispanic1809.53.01(3.6 - 15.4)||29,147(9,970 - 48,324)
MNWhite NH4,0177.80.57(6.7 - 8.9)||283,994(242,437 - 325,550)
MNBlack NH9314.44.59(5.3 - 23.5)||15,105(4,791 - 25,420)
MNOther NH863.1  ||3,588 
MNMultirace NH130.0  ||0 
MNHispanic516.6  ||3,855 
MSWhite NH5,2556.30.42(5.4 - 7.1)||84,070(73,005 - 95,134)
MSBlack NH2,2848.30.82(6.7 - 9.9)||58,903(47,182 - 70,624)
MSOther NH7611.24.64(2.0 - 20.4)||3,129(440 - 5,817)
MSMultirace NH508.9  ||951 
MSHispanic985.32.55(0.3 - 10.4)||1,744(75 - 3,412)
MOWhite NH4,3638.10.62(6.8 - 9.3)||308,677(261,224 - 356,131)
MOBlack NH4479.31.79(5.8 - 12.8)||33,058(20,251 - 45,865)
MOOther NH9611.13.07(5.0 - 17.2)||12,300(5,760 - 18,839)
MOMultirace NH10420.15.58(9.1 - 31.2)||14,605(5,528 - 23,683)
MOHispanic8011.05.08(0.9 - 21.1)||8,433(167 - 16,698)
MTWhite NH6,0649.30.55(8.2 - 10.3)||61,294(53,950 - 68,638)
MTBlack NH150.0  ||0 
MTOther NH47514.02.36(9.3 - 18.6)||5,510(3,560 - 7,460)
MTMultirace NH7521.76.04(9.7 - 33.8)||1,665(668 - 2,662)
MTHispanic10613.65.74(2.2 - 24.9)||1,998(156 - 3,839)
NEWhite NH15,0017.40.48(6.4 - 8.3)||86,460(75,116 - 97,805)
NEBlack NH1138.22.71(2.9 - 13.6)||2,611(896 - 4,326)
NEOther NH2312.80.84(1.1 - 4.5)||762(360 - 1,165)
NEMultirace NH16212.34.26(3.9 - 20.7)||2,326(734 - 3,917)
NEHispanic5883.31.36(0.7 - 6.0)||2,242(424 - 4,059)
NVWhite NH3,5219.50.80(7.9 - 11.0)||111,247(92,135 - 130,359)
NVBlack NH11410.53.80(3.0 - 18.0)||8,181(2,014 - 14,347)
NVOther NH2506.72.06(2.6 - 10.7)||8,310(3,127 - 13,492)
NVMultirace NH21712.93.79(5.4 - 20.4)||12,270(4,620 - 19,920)
NVHispanic5985.01.44(2.2 - 7.9)||22,858(9,698 - 36,018)
NHWhite NH6,44110.40.54(9.3 - 11.4)||99,280(88,960 - 109,600)
NHBlack NH256.0  ||314 
NHOther NH1447.02.11(2.8 - 11.2)||1,756(707 - 2,805)
NHMultirace NH5519.56.51(6.4 - 32.5)||1,592(475 - 2,708)
NHHispanic7217.15.74(5.7 - 28.6)||2,577(766 - 4,389)
NJWhite NH8,4248.60.50(7.6 - 9.6)||356,424(314,121 - 398,726)
NJBlack NH1,17011.41.25(9.0 - 13.9)||85,203(66,005 - 104,401)
NJOther NH5894.11.01(2.1 - 6.1)||22,648(11,521 - 33,774)
NJMultirace NH649.33.13(3.0 - 15.5)||4,197(1,537 - 6,857)
NJHispanic1,2688.71.20(6.4 - 11.1)||94,546(67,955 - 121,138)
NMWhite NH3,4499.50.72(8.1 - 10.9)||69,952(59,262 - 80,642)
NMBlack NH4811.88.81(0.0 - 29.5)||1,837(0 - 4,839)
NMOther NH5467.81.65(4.5 - 11.0)||9,307(5,376 - 13,238)
NMMultirace NH833.9  ||775 
NMHispanic2,0297.40.91(5.6 - 9.1)||41,414(30,986 - 51,841)
NYWhite NH6,1478.60.49(7.7 - 9.6)||768,779(680,891 - 856,666)
NYBlack NH6788.11.25(5.6 - 10.5)||173,183(118,869 - 227,497)
NYOther NH2747.41.74(4.0 - 10.9)||74,883(39,371 - 110,394)
NYMultirace NH9117.96.23(5.5 - 30.3)||46,222(10,053 - 82,392)
NYHispanic5409.61.56(6.5 - 12.7)||213,940(142,831 - 285,048)
NCWhite NH12,0017.70.36(7.0 - 8.4)||366,152(332,507 - 399,797)
NCBlack NH2,3177.90.83(6.2 - 9.5)||94,081(74,040 - 114,122)
NCOther NH53613.42.87(7.8 - 19.1)||37,435(20,116 - 54,755)
NCMultirace NH1766.42.17(2.1 - 10.6)||4,860(1,654 - 8,066)
NCHispanic6352.80.68(1.4 - 4.1)||15,062(7,768 - 22,356)
NDWhite NH4,7037.60.52(6.6 - 8.6)||33,740(29,096 - 38,384)
NDBlack NH142.4  ||62 
NDOther NH16611.63.35(5.0 - 18.2)||3,208(1,338 - 5,077)
NDMultirace NH2926.615.47(0.0 - 58.3)||1,141(0 - 2,864)
NDHispanic619.24.33(0.6 - 17.9)||735(60 - 1,410)
OHWhite NH11,2319.00.43(8.2 - 9.9)||678,353(613,089 - 743,617)
OHBlack NH94413.71.67(10.4 - 16.9)||83,562(62,412 - 104,711)
OHOther NH26011.62.65(6.4 - 16.8)||25,239(13,279 - 37,200)
OHMultirace NH7410.13.82(2.5 - 17.7)||6,297(1,713 - 10,881)
OHHispanic18617.06.10(5.0 - 29.1)||28,932(5,226 - 52,637)
OKWhite NH5,9718.90.50(7.9 - 9.9)||168,672(149,708 - 187,637)
OKBlack NH4579.01.96(5.2 - 12.9)||16,869(9,266 - 24,473)
OKOther NH54110.31.54(7.3 - 13.4)||28,456(19,749 - 37,162)
OKMultirace NH45912.91.99(9.0 - 16.8)||20,692(14,286 - 27,097)
OKHispanic3073.61.11(1.4 - 5.8)||6,094(2,374 - 9,814)
ORWhite NH4,2938.50.55(7.5 - 9.6)||212,947(185,671 - 240,222)
ORBlack NH278.8  ||1,809 
OROther NH1007.22.78(1.6 - 12.7)||6,168(1,359 - 10,978)
ORMultirace NH10620.65.55(9.6 - 31.6)||14,843(5,815 - 23,872)
ORHispanic1925.01.51(2.1 - 8.0)||9,910(4,043 - 15,778)
PAWhite NH10,9468.80.44(7.9 - 9.6)||694,447(625,298 - 763,595)
PABlack NH1,37615.22.33(10.7 - 19.8)||121,195(81,872 - 160,519)
PAOther NH2008.02.93(2.2 - 13.7)||23,296(5,788 - 40,804)
PAMultirace NH1407.83.33(1.2 - 14.4)||8,467(1,519 - 15,415)
PAHispanic2429.52.29(5.0 - 14.0)||38,008(19,882 - 56,135)
RIWhite NH4,10710.50.68(9.2 - 11.8)||73,579(63,987 - 83,170)
RIBlack NH13412.63.23(6.2 - 19.0)||2,732(1,288 - 4,177)
RIOther NH10712.44.41(3.6 - 21.1)||2,291(542 - 4,039)
RIMultirace NH209.2  ||421 
RIHispanic31810.52.48(5.7 - 15.4)||7,302(3,716 - 10,888)
SCWhite NH6,6367.90.57(6.7 - 9.0)||172,397(147,317 - 197,477)
SCBlack NH2,6898.61.08(6.5 - 10.7)||70,400(52,264 - 88,536)
SCOther NH1916.52.38(1.8 - 11.1)||7,226(1,988 - 12,463)
SCMultirace NH11421.76.19(9.4 - 33.9)||11,031(4,530 - 17,531)
SCHispanic1785.81.89(2.0 - 9.5)||5,303(1,989 - 8,618)
SDWhite NH6,0966.90.46(6.0 - 7.9)||37,319(32,393 - 42,244)
SDBlack NH1317.6  ||373 
SDOther NH6718.41.59(5.3 - 11.5)||3,169(1,977 - 4,361)
SDMultirace NH5125.810.49(4.7 - 46.8)||954(9 - 1,898)
SDHispanic725.2  ||378 
TNWhite NH4,2709.10.65(7.8 - 10.3)||332,529(284,844 - 380,214)
TNBlack NH5379.81.79(6.3 - 13.3)||66,312(41,749 - 90,875)
TNOther NH557.3  ||6,501 
TNMultirace NH575.3  ||3,929 
TNHispanic645.6  ||7,720 
TXWhite NH6,8418.70.54(7.6 - 9.7)||748,853(655,745 - 841,962)
TXBlack NH73611.92.06(7.8 - 15.9)||196,388(124,700 - 268,077)
TXOther NH3083.60.97(1.7 - 5.5)||31,440(15,222 - 47,658)
TXMultirace NH1068.83.76(1.3 - 16.2)||15,923(2,024 - 29,822)
TXHispanic2,5464.50.69(3.2 - 5.9)||264,843(183,962 - 345,724)
UTWhite NH4,7409.00.63(7.8 - 10.3)||142,716(122,337 - 163,094)
UTBlack NH175.5  ||422 
UTOther NH1323.91.82(0.3 - 7.5)||2,225(150 - 4,300)
UTMultirace NH2911.2  ||1,053 
UTHispanic3194.41.25(1.9 - 6.8)||6,478(2,821 - 10,135)
VTWhite NH6,3369.70.47(8.8 - 10.6)||44,928(40,568 - 49,289)
VTBlack NH1311.9  ||83 
VTOther NH9121.48.10(5.3 - 37.4)||1,758(168 - 3,347)
VTMultirace NH948.52.97(2.6 - 14.4)||574(169 - 979)
VTHispanic688.33.23(1.8 - 14.7)||437(89 - 785)
VAWhite NH4,1739.80.93(7.9 - 11.6)||436,760(350,741 - 522,779)
VABlack NH6809.21.39(6.4 - 11.9)||55,573(38,994 - 72,152)
VAOther NH1598.24.18(0.0 - 16.4)||29,337(0 - 58,866)
VAMultirace NH3511.3  ||6,622 
VAHispanic1584.51.57(1.4 - 7.6)||14,775(4,874 - 24,677)
WAWhite NH19,5769.50.30(8.9 - 10.1)||386,336(361,951 - 410,721)
WABlack NH22115.13.13(8.9 - 21.3)||10,314(5,863 - 14,765)
WAOther NH7877.71.24(5.2 - 10.1)||20,141(13,611 - 26,671)
WAMultirace NH51511.91.75(8.4 - 15.3)||14,118(9,936 - 18,300)
WAHispanic1,0656.61.11(4.4 - 8.7)||25,345(16,678 - 34,012)
WVWhite NH3,9239.60.58(8.5 - 10.7)||128,949(113,524 - 144,374)
WVBlack NH7110.94.90(1.2 - 20.7)||2,872(154 - 5,589)
WVOther NH334.0  ||606 
WVMultirace NH6911.33.49(4.4 - 18.3)||2,783(1,061 - 4,505)
WVHispanic4814.25.79(2.6 - 25.9)||2,505(284 - 4,726)
WIWhite NH6,0368.60.58(7.5 - 9.8)||328,772(285,103 - 372,441)
WIBlack NH54119.64.06(11.7 - 27.6)||27,626(14,949 - 40,303)
WIOther NH24911.23.77(3.8 - 18.6)||14,065(4,469 - 23,661)
WIMultirace NH6722.68.86(4.9 - 40.3)||12,512(1,259 - 23,766)
WIHispanic10210.87.12(0.0 - 25.0)||11,583(0 - 27,993)
WYWhite NH7,2748.70.42(7.9 - 9.6)||31,034(28,047 - 34,021)
WYBlack NH280.0  ||0 
WYOther NH14525.46.34(12.9 - 37.9)||2,248(848 - 3,648)
WYMultirace NH10122.86.40(10.2 - 35.5)||1,267(422 - 2,113)
WYHispanic3278.12.03(4.1 - 12.1)||1,674(810 - 2,537)
Territories        
GUWhite NH750.4  ||30 
GUBlack NH50.0  ||0 
GUOther NH6254.70.88(3.0 - 6.4)||4,062(2,578 - 5,547)
GUMultirace NH264.3  ||141 
GUHispanic275.8  ||201 
PRWhite NH503.6  ||988 
PRBlack NH30.0  ||0 
PROther NH262.3  ||311 
PRMultirace NH0   ||0 
PRHispanic4,3895.20.41(4.4 - 6.0)||145,961(123,549 - 168,373)
VIWhite NH4245.41.16(3.1 - 7.6)||553(314 - 791)
VIBlack NH1,5524.00.62(2.8 - 5.2)||1,878(1,299 - 2,457)
VIOther NH1032.7  ||78 
VIMultirace NH478.5  ||121 
VIHispanic2757.12.03(3.1 - 11.1)||714(299 - 1,130)

Notes:

*CI denotes confidence interval.

**U.S. Total includes 50 states plus the District of Columbia and excludes the three territories.

If values for the standard error and the 95% confidence interval are not provided, the normal approximation to the binomial distribution does not apply due to small sample size.

When the sample size is less than 50, estimates are not precise and should be interpreted with caution.

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