Publications and Resources

Picture of several publications laying on top of one another

CDC’s is committed to improving the value of public health surveillance and data. Learn more about this ongoing work by reading the resources below.

Highlighted Publications
2022 DMI Snapshot cover

Showcasing more than two dozen stories, the latest DMI Snapshot captures just a fraction of the amazing work accomplished in 2022. As we look beyond the immediate demands of a global pandemic, we are realizing the potential of modernization to answer all kinds of health threats — from suicide to cancer to tuberculosis to chronic diseases and more.

Read the 2022 DMI Snapshot: Transforming Data to Protect Health. Or download the full visual booklet [6 MB, 40 Pages].




2021 DMI Snapshot cover

The 2021 DMI Snapshot is a both a record of our progress and a testament to the many thousands of people who worked over these long months to modernize public health surveillance and data in meaningful and lasting ways. This work has delivered an extraordinary amount of data to understand the burden of COVID-19, and the gains we have made are now building a bridge to a new kind of surveillance and better approaches to public health data.

Download and print the DMI Snapshot 2021: Building a Strong Foundation [PDF – 1 MB].





CDC’s Data Modernization Initiative (DMI) is how our nation will move from siloed and brittle public health data systems to connected, resilient, adaptable, and sustainable ‘response-ready’ systems. Grounded in this ambitious vision, the DMI Strategic Implementation Plan lays out five key priorities and a supporting set of objectives that are interdependent and equally important to reaching the future state. These priorities and objectives will lead us toward specific key results by which we can measure our impact.

Download and print the Data Modernization Initiative Strategic Implementation Plan [PDF – 1 MB].




Public Health Data Modernization Listening Session on Real-World Testing of 21st Century Cures Act Requirements; Executive Summary; Session held July 16, 2020; CDC logo; HHS logo

Public Health Data Modernization: Listening Session on Real-World Testing of 21st Century Cures Act Requirements [667 KB, 30 Pages]

Building on the momentum of its Data Modernization Initiative, CDC hosted a listening session on July 16, 2020, to discuss ways emerging standards — including but not limited to standardized APIs for population level data, often referred to as bulk data — could benefit public health. This meeting brought together key stakeholders from across public health and healthcare.




Public health surveillance preparing for the future: newer. faster. smarter. better. 2014-2018.

Public Health Surveillance Preparing for the Future: Newer. Faster. Smarter. Better.

Beginning in 2014, at the request of the director, CDC developed and implemented a strategy to improve the agency’s public health data surveillance capabilities over 3 to 5 years. The directive responded to requests from stakeholders — including Congress, state public health leaders, and federal advisory committees — asking for a strategy to transform and modernize CDC’s surveillance systems and approaches. This report is a summary of highlighted results from our work to improve surveillance.

The following publications from external partners and CDC offer critical insights and recommendations that are informing the work of CDC’s Data Modernization Initiative.

The list below consists of peer-reviewed literature as well as official reports from professional organizations, national commissions, and more. The authors represent a wide range of professional sectors, including federal and state government, academia, the private sector, the non-profit sector, and policymakers. This list will continue to be updated.

    1. Armooh, T., Barton, T., Castillo, G., Cinnick, S., Clark, S., Giles-Cantrell, B., Gorenflo, G., Hoagland, G. W., Horneffer, K., Pardal, A., Parekh, A., Pham, T., Resnick, B., Rice, S., Sellers, K., Shirley, L., & Wu, K. (2021, December). Public Health Forward: Modernizing the U.S. Public Health System. The Bipartisan Policy Center.
    2. Aturaliya, R., Espinosa, O., Lafronza, V., Ransom, M., & Bleser, J. (2021). Challenges and Opportunities for Strengthening the US Public Health Infrastructure: Findings from the Scan of the Literature.
    3. Braun, P. (2020). Public Health Data Modernization Executive Summary Report. [PDF]
    4. Cassel, C., Chyba, C., Graham, S. L., Holdren, J. P., Lander, E. S., Levin, R., Penhoet, E., Press, W., Savitz, M., & Varmus, H. (2020). Epidemiological Modeling Needs New, Coherent, Federal Support for the Post-COVID-19 Era.
    5. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. (2020). Public Health Data Modernization: Listening Session on Real-World Testing of 21st Century Cures Act Requirements.
    6. The Commonwealth Fund. (2022). Meeting America’s Public Health Challenge.
    7. Council for State and Territorial Epidemiologists. (2022). Addressing Gaps in Public Health Reporting of Race and Ethnicity Data for COVID-19.
    8. Council for State and Territorial Epidemiologists. (2019). Driving Public Health in the Fast Lane: The Urgent Need for a 21st Century Data Superhighway.
    9. Daschle, T., First, B., Wilensky, G., Burke, S., Capretta, J., Crippen, D., Hamburg, M., Jennings, C., Lavizzo-Mourey, R., Roper, W., Smith, M., & Wen, L. (2021). Positioning America’s public health system for the next pandemic. Washington: American Enterprise Institute for Public Policy Research. The Bipartisan Policy Center.
    10. Dastvar, D., & Averill, D. (2021). The National Public Health Data System: The case for an aggregated national healthcare database. [Whitepaper].
    11. Data Foundation (2022, September). Evidence Commission After Five Years: A Progress Report on the Promise for a More Evidence-Informed Society.
    12. DeSalvo, K., Hughes, B., Basset, M., Benjamin, G., Fraser, M., Galea, S., Gracia, N. J., & Howard, J. (2021). Public Health COVID-19 Impact Assessment: Lessons Learned and Compelling Needs. NAM Perspective. doi: 10.31478/202104c.
    13. DeSalvo, K. B., Wang, Y. C., Harris, A., Auerbach, J., Koo, D., & O’Carroll, P. (2017). Public Health 3.0: A Call to Action for Public Health to Meet the Challenges of the 21st Century. Prev Chronic Dis, 14(170017). DOI:
    14. Digital Bridge Public Health API Workgroup. (2021, September). Public Health API Concept Paper Version 1.0.
    15. Gee, R. E., & Khan, A. S. (2021) Leading the world again: creating a 21st-century public health agency. Am J Public Health, 111(4):594–596.
    16. George, D. B., Taylor, W., Shaman, J., Rivers, C., Paul, B., O’Toole, T., Johansson, M. A., Hirschman, L., Biggerstaff, M., Asher, J., & Reich, N. G. (2019). Technology to advance infectious disease forecasting for outbreak management. Nature Communications, 10(3932). DOI: 10.1038/s41467-019-11901-7.
    17. Gerberding, J. L. (2021). Back to the Future of Public Health. American Journal of Public Health,111(4):596-7.
    18. Hamburg, M.A., Cohen, M, et al. (2022). Building a National Public Health System in the United States. New England Journal of Medicine. 2022 June 21. doi: 10.1056/NEJMp2207374. Epub ahead of print.
    19. Health Information Technology Advisory Committee. (2021, July 14). Public Health Data Systems Task Force 2021 Report to the Health Information Technology Advisory Committee.
    20. Healthcare Information and Management Systems Society. (2022, April 29). Public Health Information and Technology Infrastructure Modernization Funding Report: Care Investment Strategies to Modernize and Interoperate Federal, State, Local, Tribal Public Health Systems.
    21. Kadakia, K. T., Howell, M. D., & DeSalvo, K. B. (2021). Modernizing Public Health Data Systems: Lessons From the Health Information Technology for Economic and Clinical Health (HITECH) Act. JAMA: The Journal of the American Medical Association, 326(5), 385-386. DOI: 10.1001/jama.2021.12000
    22. Krofah, E., Gasca, C., & Degarmo, A. (2021). A Global Early Warning System for Pandemics: Mobilizing Surveillance for Emerging Pathogens. Milken Institute.
    23. Mok, L., & Ramirez, J. (2020). Develop the Competencies Your Workforce Needs for the Digital Ecosystem (Garter, Inc).
    24. The National Academies Press (2022). Emerging Stronger from COVID-19: Priorities for Health System Transformation.
    25. The National Commission to Transform Public Health Data Systems. (2021). Charting a Course for an Equity-Centered Data System: Recommendations from the National Commission to Transform Public Health Data Systems. Robert Wood Johnson Foundation.
    26. The National Network of Public Health Institutes & The Texas Health Institute. (2021, November). The Future of Public Health: A Synthesis Report for the Field.
    27. Partnership for Public Service. (2020). Bit by Bit: How Government Used Technology to Move the Mission Forward During COVID-19. Microsoft.
    28. Partnership for Public Service. (2021). Retracing Steps: Reflecting on Management Lessons in Public Health Data Infrastructure During COVID-19.
    29. Partnership for Public Service. (2021). Roadmap for Renewing our Federal Government.
    30. Singletary, V., & Kerr, J. (2021). Building Back Better: Transforming U.S. public health data and infrastructure to protect health and achieve health equity. Public Health Informatics Institute.
    31. Singletary, V., Richards, C. L., Ross, D. A., O’Carroll, P., & Baker, E. L. (2021). Modernizing Our Nation’s Public Health Information System: Toward an Integrated Approach. Journal of Public Health Management and Practice, 27(5), 521-525. DOI: 10.1097/PHH.0000000000001400
    32. The Rockefeller Foundation. (2021). Accelerating National Genomic Surveillance: Action Plan Towards a Coordinated, Robust Genomic Surveillance System in the United States.
    33. U.S. Department of Health and Human Services. (2020). Artificial Intelligence (AI) Strategy.
    34. van Panhuis, W. G., Paul, P., Emerson, C., Grefenstette, J., Wilder, R., Herbst, A. J., Heymann, D., & Burke, D. S. (2014). A systematic review of barriers to data sharing in public health. BMC Public Health, 14(1144). DOI: 10.1186/1471-2458-14-114

Featured Publication: Public Health Surveillance: Preparing for the Future chronicles the CDC strategy to improve the agency’s public health surveillance and data capabilities over 3 to 5 years and sets the stage for a more transformative strategy to improve the value of public health data.

Additional Publications:

  1. Ahier B. FHIR and the future of interoperability. Healthcare IT News. January 6, 2015.
  2. Benjamin EJ, Virani SS, Callaway CW, et al. Heart disease and stroke statistics—2018 update: a report from the American Heart Association. Circulation. 2018;137(12):e67-492.
  3. Edison L, Erickson A, Smith S, et al. Notes from the Field: Counterfeit Percocet – Related Overdose Cluster – Georgia. MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep. 2017; 66:1119-1120. PDF Available.
  4. Gould DW, Walker D, Yoon PW. The evolution of BioSense: lessons learned and future directions. Public Health Reports. 2017;132(Suppl 1):7s-1s.
  5. Lamb E, Satre J, Pon S, et al. Update on progress in electronic reporting of laboratory results to public health agencies – United States, 2014. MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep. 2015;64(12):328-330. PDF Available.
  6. Lee D, host. “How to listen your way to the future of healthcare”. The #HCBiz Show, episode 24, Glide Health IT, October 26, 2017,
  7. Mac Kenzie WR, Davidson AJ, Wiesenthal A, et al. The Promise of Electronic Case Reporting. Public Health Reports. 2016:131;742-746. PDF Available
  8. Office of Public Health Scientific Services. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Public Health Surveillance: Preparing for the Future. Atlanta, GA: Centers for Disease Control and Prevention; September 2018.
  9. Council of State and Territorial Epidemiologists (CSTE). Review of Recommendations for the National Notifiable Disease Surveillance System: A State and Local Health Department Perspective. April 2013.
  10. Richards CL. Bridging public health and technology: why innovation matters. Presentation at: GVU Center Brown Bag Seminar; November 17, 2017; Atlanta, GA.
  11. Richards CL, Iademarco MF, Anderson TC. A new strategy for public health surveillance at CDC: improving national surveillance activities and outcomes. Public Health Reports. 2014; 129(6):472-476.
  12. Richards CL, Iademarco MF, Atkinson D, et al. Advances in public health surveillance and information dissemination at the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Public Health Reports. 2017;132(4):403-410.
  13. Richards CL, Lee B. CDC Surveillance Strategy – A strategy for improving CDC activities in public health surveillance. Online J Public Health Inform. 2015;7(1):e49.
  14. Spencer MR, Ahmad F. Timeliness of Death Certificate Data for Mortality Surveillance and Provisional Estimates. National Center for Health Statistics. January 2017.
  15. Yoon PW, Ising AI, Gunn JE (Eds.). Syndromic Surveillance: The Value of Real-time Data for Public Health Action. Public Health Reports Volume 132, Issue 1_suppl, July/August 2017.
  16. Toon J (Ed.). The health informatics revolution. Research Horizons. 2016;3.
  17. Vivolo-Kantor AM, Seth P, Gladden RM, et al. Vital Signs: trends in emergency department visits for suspected opioid overdoses — United States, July 2016–September 2017. MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep. 2018;67(9):279–285.

Presentations and Abstracts