Osterholm MT, Anderson CJ, Zabel MD, et al. Chronic Wasting Disease in Cervids: Implications for Prion Transmission to Humans and Other Animal Speciesexternal icon . MBio.2019 Jul 23;10(4). pii: e01091-19. doi: 10.1128/mBio.01091-19.

Travel History, Hunting, and Venison Consumption Related to Prion Disease Exposure, 2006-2007 FoodNet Population Surveyexternal icon. Abrams JY, Maddox RA, Harvey AR, Schonberger LB, Belay ED. et al. J Am Diet Assoc. 2011 Jun;111(6):858-863.
Survey assessment of the prevalence of travel to the United Kingdom and other European countries, hunting for deer or elk, and venison consumption in specific areas within the United States. The results of the survey are useful in determining the prevalence and frequency of behaviors that could be important factors for foodborne prion transmission (including chronic wasting disease).

Human Prion Diseases in the United Statesexternal icon. Holman RC, Belay ED, Christensen KY, et al. PLoS One. 2010 Jan 1;5(1):e8521.
Description of the occurrence and epidemiology of CJD and vCJD in the United States. The low rate of CJD seen in the West is of particular interest due to the longstanding presence of chronic wasting disease among cervids in parts of that region.

Chronic Wasting Disease and Potential Transmission to Humans. Belay E, Maddox R, Williams E, et al. EID. June 2004;10(6):977-84.
Overview of what is currently known about CWD in both captive and wild deer and elk in the United States. The article discusses transmission of CWD to other animals, as well at the epidemiologic and laboratory studies assessing the risk of CWD transmission to humans.

Fatal Degenerative Neurologic Illnesses in Men Who Participated in Wild Game Feasts—Wisconsin, 2002. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep. 2003;52:125-127.
Epidemiologic investigation to assess risk of possible CWD transmission to men who participated in wild game feasts from 1993-1999 in Wisconsin.

Creutzfeldt-Jakob Disease in Unusually Young Patients Who Consumed Venisonexternal icon. Belay ED, Gambetti P, Schonberger LB, et al. Arch Neurol. 2001;58:1673-1678.
This report examines the possible transmission of CWD to humans.

Chronic Wasting Disease of Elk: Transmissibility to Humans Examined by Transgenic Mouse Modelsexternal icon. Kong Q, Huang S, Zou W, et al. Neurobiol Dis. 2005;25(35)7944-7949.
This article indicates that there is a substantial species barrier for transmission of CWD from elks to humans.


University of Minnesota, Center for Infectious Diseases Research and Policy, Chronic Wasting Disease Resource Centerexternal icon

U.S. Department of Agriculture, CWDexternal icon

National Wildlife Health Center (USGS), CWD external icon

Wisconsin Department of Natural Resources, Chronic Wasting Disease (CWD)external icon

Colorado Parks & Wildlife external icon

Wyoming Game and Fish, CWD external icon

Chronic Wasting Disease Alliance external icon