Publications, Journal Articles, and Resources

These publications, journal articles, and other resources are related to small area estimation methods that we used to estimate chronic disease related measures for areas without direct estimates from surveys, such as counties, places, census tracts, and ZIP Code tabulation areas (ZCTA).

Pankowska MM, Lu H, Wheaton AG, et al. Prevalence and geographic patterns of self-reported short sleep duration among US adults, 2020. Prev Chronic Dis 2023;20:220400. DOI:

Lee B, Wang Y, Carlson SA, et al. National, state-level, and county-level prevalence estimates of adults aged ≥18 years self-reporting a lifetime diagnosis of depression — United States, 2020. MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep 2023;72:24[644-650].

Lu H, Wang Y, Liu Y, et al. County-Level geographic disparities in disabilities among US adults, 2018. Prev Chronic Dis. 2023;20:230004. DOI:

Greenlund KJ, Lu H, Wang Y, et al. PLACES: Local Data for Better Health. Prev Chronic Dis. 2022;19:210459. DOI:

Wang Y, Tevendale H, Lu H, et al. US county-level estimation for maternal and infant health-related behavior indicators using Pregnancy Risk Assessment Monitoring System data, 2016–2018. Popul Health Metr. 2022;20:14. DOI:

Wang Y, Zhang XY, Lu H, et al. Constructing statistical intervals for small area estimates based on generalized linear mixed model in health surveys. Open J Stat. 2022;12(1):10.4236/ojs.2022.121005. DOI:

Wang Y, Zhang XY, Lu H, et al. Intercensal and postcensal estimation of population size for small geographic areas in the United States. Int J Popul Data Sci. 2020;5(1):27. DOI:

Razzaghi H, Wang Y, Lu H, et al. Estimated county-level prevalence of selected underlying medical conditions associated with increased risk for severe COVID-19 illness — United States, 2018. MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep. 2020;69(29):945–950. DOI:

Samanic CM, Barbour KE, Liu Y, et al. Prevalence of self-reported hypertension and antihypertensive medication use by county and rural-urban classification — United States, 2017. MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep. 2020;69(18):533–539. DOI:

Holt JB, Matthews KA, Lu H, et al. Small area estimates of populations with chronic conditions for community preparedness for public health emergencies. American Journal of Public Health. 2019;109(S4): S325–S331. DOI:

Eke PI, Lu H, Zhang X, et al. Geospatial distribution of periodontists and US adults with severe periodontitis, The Journal of the American Dental Association. 2018;150(2):103–110. DOI:

Barbour KE, Moss S, Croft JB, et al. Geographic variations in arthritis prevalence, health-related characteristics, and management–United States, 2015;  MMWR Surveill Summ. 2018;67(No. SS-4):1–28. DOI:

Croft JB, Wheaton AG, Liu Y, et al. Urban–rural county and state differences in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease – United States, 2015.  MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep. 2018;67(7):205-211. DOI:

Berkowitz Z, Zhang X, Richards TB, et al. Multilevel small–area estimation of colorectal cancer screening in the United States. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev. 2018;27(3):245–253. DOI:

Berkowitz Z, Zhang X, Richards TB, et al. Multilevel regression for small-area estimation of mammography use in the United States, 2014. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev. 2018;28(1):32–40. DOI:

Wang Y, Holt JB, Xu F, et al. Using 3 health surveys to compare multilevel models for small area estimation for chronic diseases and health behaviors. Prev Chronic Dis 2018;15:E133. DOI:

Lin M, Zhang X, Holt JB, et al. Multilevel model to estimate county-level untreated dental caries among US children aged 6-9 years using the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. Preventive Medicine. 2018;111:291–298. DOI:

Wang Y, Holt JB, Zhang X, et al. Comparison of methods for estimating prevalence of chronic diseases and health behaviors for small geographic areas: Boston validation study, 2013. Prev Chronic Dis 2017;14:E99. DOI:

Barbour KE, Helmick CG, Boring M, et al. Prevalence of doctor-diagnosed arthritis at state and county levels – United States, 2014.  MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep. 2016;65(19):489–494. DOI:

Berkowitz Z, Zhang X, Richards TB, et al. Multilevel small-area estimation of multiple cigarette smoking status categories using the 2012 Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev. 2016;25(10):1402–1410. DOI:

Eke PI, Zhang X, Lu H, et al. Predicting periodontitis at state and local levels in the United States. Journal of Dental Research. 2016;95(5):515–522. DOI:

Eke PI, Wei L, Borgnakke WS, et al. Periodontitis prevalence in adults ≥ 65 years of age, in the USA. Periodontology 2000. 2016;72(1):76–95. DOI:

Zhang X, Holt JB, Yun S, et al. Validation of multilevel regression and poststratification methodology for small area estimation of health indicators from the Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System. Am J Epidemiol 2015;182(2):127–37. DOI:

Zhang X, Holt JB, Lu H, et al. Multilevel regression and poststratification for small-area estimation of population health outcomes: a case study of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease prevalence using the behavioral risk factor surveillance system. Am J Epidemiol 2014;179(8):1025–33. DOI:

Zhang X, Onufrak S, Holt JB, Croft JB. A multilevel approach to estimating small area childhood obesity prevalence at the census block–group level. Prev Chronic Dis. 2013;10:120252. DOI: