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Preventing Health Hazards From Exposure to Benzidine Congener Dyes

January 1983
DHHS (NIOSH) Publication Number 83-105
83-105 Cover

Prevention of health hazards from benzidine congener dyes (BCD) is reviewed. The term BCD is defined as commercial preparations of dyes produced from benzidine (92875), o-tolidine (119937), or o- dianisidine (119904). The similarities among the 82 dyes of this type on the market are noted, and their carcinogenic potential is assessed. The cancer causing potential of the dyes and the parent chemicals of the commercial preparations are noted. The impurities present in BCD are cited as actual or potential carcinogens. The need for protection of workers using the manufactured products, as well as those involved in the manufacture of BCD is stressed. Manufacturing operations in which exposure is especially likely are listed. The potential exposure of cleanup crews and maintenance workers is noted. The use of substitute dyes and the mechanism of exposure are discussed. Personal protective equipment used under the varying exposure conditions is listed. Tests and procedures for evaluating exposures to BCD are outlined and include occupational and exposure history; medical history (especially urinary tract or liver complaints); physical examinations; laboratory tests for liver and kidney function and urinalysis; and medical advice on findings. The availability of NIOSH health hazard evaluations for assessment of hazards from BCD is noted. Trademarks and generic names of BCD by parent chemicals are appended.