NIOSH Manual of Analytical Methods (7704) Beryllium by Field Portable Fluorescence (Air) and (9110) Beryllium by Field Portable Fluorescence (Wipes)


NIOSH Docket Number 077

This is the docket for the draft NIOSH methods for Beryllium. NIOSH Method 7704 (air sampling) and Method 9110 (wipe sampling) and the backup data report for these methods. Beryllium is a health hazard with many uses in the ceramics industry and in military artillery.


Backup data—Methods Nos. 7704 and 9110/Beryllium – Final [PDF – 38,290 KB]

Beryllium by Field-Portable Fluorescence Measurement – Method 9110 – Final [PDF – 4,000 KB]

Beryllium by Field-Portable Fluorescence Measurement – Method 7704 – Final [PDF – 4,250 KB]

Review from external reviewer 1 [PDF – 38 KB]

Review from external reviewer 2 [PDF – 38 KB]

Review from external reviewer 3 [PDF – 33 KB]

Review from external reviewer 4 [PDF – 274 KB]

Review from external reviewer 5 [PDF – 67 KB]

Draft—Beryllium by Field-Portable Fluorescence Measurement – Method 7704 [PDF – 187 KB]

Draft—Beryllium by Field-Portable Fluorescence Measurement – Method 9110 [PDF – 196 KB]

Backup data—Method Nos. 7704 and 9110/Beryllium – Draft [PDF – 1,600 KB]

Peer Review

Title: NIOSH Method 7704: Beryllium by field-portable fluorescence (air) and NIOSH Method 9110: Beryllium by field-portable fluorescence (wipe)

Subject: New or updated method in a collection of methods to sample and analyze workplace contaminants.

Purpose: 7704-To conduct air monitoring in the field in order to determine compliance with existing U.S. and European beryllium exposure standards. Exposure to beryllium can cause chronic beryllium disease and beryllium sensitization.

9110 -To accurately measure beryllium surface contamination using a basic solution to remove other metals and a dye that is specific for the beryllium atom. This method also is cost-effective because it allows for on-site assessment of contamination and effectiveness of decontamination

Timing of Review: July 2006

Primary Disciplines or Expertise Needed for Review: Chemistry, industrial hygiene

Type of Review: Individual

Number of Reviewers: 4

Reviewers Selected by: NIOSH

Public Nominations Requested for Reviewers: No

Opportunities for Public to Comment: Yes

Peer Reviewers Provided with Public Comments Before their Review: No

Peer Reviewers:

Dr. Melecita M. Archuleta
Industrial Hygiene Analytical Chemistry Lab, Sandia National Laboratories
Area of Expertise: Inorganic chemist and toxicologist, with many publications on beryllium.

Mr. Mike Brisson
Laboratories, Westinghouse Savannah River Co.
Area of Expertise: Chemist with expertise in waste management and field sampling of beryllium.

Ms. Brandi Duran
Actinide, Catalysis, & Separations Chemistry, Los Alamos National Laboratory
Area of Expertise: Analytical chemist who is an expert in sampling (surface & soil) of inorganic compounds

Dr. Gary E. Whitney
Los Alamos National Laboratory
Area of Expertise: Industrial hygienist who is an expert in beryllium evaluation and control.

Peer Reviewers’ Comments and NIOSH Response:

Note: The two NIOSH Methods, “Method 7704: Beryllium in Air by Field-Portable
Fluorometry”, and “Method 9110: Beryllium on Surfaces by Field-Portable
Fluorometry”, were reviewed jointly because they are so similar in most respects,
particularly from an analytical standpoint. That was the case for both the web-based
public comment opportunity, and the invited expert reviewers. As a result of this joint
review, the following comments and responses address both methods.

Comments were received from 5 selected reviewers and the public on the two proposed
NIOSH methods and associated backup data report that summarizes validation tests.
A single blind study using beryllium metal and beryllium oxide spiked samples was used
to verify that an independent laboratory could produce similar acceptable results.

Comments concerning test source materials were received from two reviewers. There is
no NIST Standard Reference Material (SRM) for beryllium oxide, so commonly
available commercial materials were used to validate the method. A reference addressing
particle size and beryllium salt characterization of a beryllium oxide test material, and the
use of beryllium oxide spikes in quality control testing have been included as suggested.
However, inclusion of a general beryllium salts or beryllium silicate recovery discussion
were not included since the focus of the research is the recovery of the most commonly
encountered workplace beryllium compounds (beryllium metal and beryllium oxide).

Several comments were received concerning the airborne exposure and surface
contamination limits. The methods now cite two categories of exposure standards: U.S.
regulatory occupational exposure standards and other published limits and guidelines. In
the first category, applicable OSHA, MSHA and U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)
limits have been listed. These limits have undergone formal rule making and public
comment however the DOE limits only apply to DOE facilities and DOE contractors.

Other non-mandatory limits include the guidelines established by three U.S. occupational
health organizations (the American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists
[ACGIH], the American Industrial Hygiene Association [AIHA] and NIOSH). As
suggested, the methods now state “not established” when OSHA, MSHA, DOE, ACGIH,
AIHA or NIOSH have not established a limit or guideline. Three exposure limit data
bases are cited and limits established by over 30 countries and provinces are included.

One comment suggested that more detailed information concerning skin sensitization
should be included. While skin sensitization is an important issue, the backup data report
continues to focus on beryllium analytical issues, not beryllium health related issues.

One comment suggested that additional information or research should be included
concerning surface sampling. Surface sampling uptake rates are important for all wipe
sampling. However the focus of the research has been on analytical performance. If
additional research on beryllium wipe sampling uptake rates becomes available, it can be
included in a future revision of the method.

All other comments were minor technical or editorial comments that were included in the
revised text.