Articles about Disability and Health

Key Findings

Key Findings: Prevalence of Disabilities and Health Care Access by Disability Status and Type Among Adults — United States, 2016
Read the published report describing adults with disabilities in the US, as well as the differences in healthcare access by disability type.

Key Findings: Using Medicaid Data to Characterize Persons with Intellectual and Developmental Disabilities in Five U.S. States
An article in the American Journal on Intellectual and Developmental Disabilities used Medicaid data from 2008-2013 to identify and describe people with intellectual or developmental disability (IDD) in five states (Delaware, Iowa, Massachusetts, New York, and South Carolina).

Article Highlights: The Guide to Community Preventive Services and Disability Inclusion
In a recent report in the American Journal of Preventive Medicine (AJPM), CDC scientists summarize how public health recommendations from the Guide to Community Preventive Services (Community Guide) can be adapted to better benefit people with disabilities.

Key Findings: Primary Care Providers’ Level of Preparedness for Recommending Physical Activity to Adults with Disabilities
The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention’s (CDC’s) Preventing Chronic Disease journal published a study that looked at how prepared primary care providers (PCPs) feel to recommend physical activity to adults with disabilities.

Key Findings: Adults with One or More Functional Disabilities
The Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report (MMWR) has published a new report that describes the demographic and socioeconomic characteristics of working-age (18-64 years) adults with disabilities living in U.S. communities.

Key Findings: Socioeconomic Factors at the Intersection of Race and Ethnicity Influencing Health Risks for People with Disabilities
The Journal of Racial and Ethnic Health Disparities has published a new study looking at the relationship between income and education, and two health behaviors—smoking and obesity—among people with disabilities from different racial and ethnic groups.

Key Findings: Including People with Disabilities in Community Health Initiatives
The BMC Public Health Journal recently published a study about the Community Health Inclusion Index (CHII), a new evaluation tool for improving inclusion of people with disabilities in community health initiatives.

Key Findings: Disability within US Public Health School and Program Curricula
The Massachusetts Department of Public Health in collaboration with the CDC has published an article that indicates that only half of U.S public health schools and programs offer courses with disability content. A public health workforce with the knowledge and skills to work with people with disabilities can help make sure that everybody have access to services and programs they need to live healthy and productive lives. Schools should plan to include disability content in their curricula.

Key Findings: Prevalence of Disability and Disability Type among Adults, United States – 2013
The Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report (MMWR) has published a new report describing the percentage of adults with disabilities in the United States living in communities.

Key Findings: Tools for Improving Clinical Preventive Services Receipt Among Women with Disabilities of Childbearing Ages and Beyond
The Maternal and Child Health Journal published findings of a search for tools to improve use of clinical preventive services among women with disabilities.

Key Findings: Persons with Disabilities as an Unrecognized Health Disparity Population
The American Journal of Public Health published a commentary in its Framing Health Matters section focused on the importance of addressing health disparities among people with disabilities in relation to access to health care, health behaviors, health status, and social factors that impact health.

Key Findings: Disability Status, Mortality, and Leading Causes of Death in the United States Community Population
CDC researchers have published an article in the journal Medical Care that examines the relationship between disability and death using data from a nationally representative survey of U.S. adults, ages 18 and older, living in communities.

Key Findings:  Hypertension Among US Adults by Disability Status and Type, National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, 2001–2010
The journal Preventing Chronic Disease published a new study “Hypertension Among US Adults by Disability Status and Type, National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, 2001-2010.”

Feature Articles

Disability-Inclusive Communities
July 26, 2019 marks the 29th anniversary of the Americans with Disabilities Act (ADA). Learn what CDC is doing to include people with disabilities in public health research and health promotion activities.
(Published: July 22, 2019)

Disability and Health Data at Your Fingertips
Visit the data system to learn about the health of people with disabilities.
(Published: May 29, 2019)

Physical Activity for People with Disabilities
Do you have a disability? Find your own path to physical activity.
(Published May 20, 2019)

Healthy Athletes at Special Olympics Games
Learn how the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) is working with Special Olympics to improve the health of people with intellectual disabilities.
(Published: March 14, 2019)

International Day of Persons with Disabilities
Together, we can create inclusive communities where people with disabilities can be healthy and lead full, active lives.
(Published: December 3, 2018)

How to Help People with Disabilities Quit Smoking
If more people with disabilities are included in smoking cessation programs, the percentage of those who smoke can be reduced.
(Published: November 13, 2017)

Physical Activity for Everybody
Doctors and other health professionals can follow 5 easy steps to increase physical activity among adults with disabilities.
(Published: October 18, 2017)

Inclusive Communities
Inclusive communities can keep you active and healthy, learn how.
(Published: July 24, 2017)

Disability Inclusion Works for All
Building an inclusive workforce where people with disabilities can actively participate and contribute is everybody’s job.
(Published: October 3, 2016)

American Heart Month
February is American Heart Month: Learn how to keep your blood pressure under control
(Published: February 9, 2015)

Recent Scientific Articles

* These CDC scientific articles are listed in order of date published, from 2005 to present.

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Prevalence of disabilities and health care access by disability status and type among adults – United States, 2016
MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep 2018; 64: 777-783. 67: 882–887
Okoro CA, Hollis ND, Cyrus AC, Griffin-Blake S.
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Using Medicaid data to characterize persons with IDD in five US states
Am J Intellect Dev Disabil. 2018;123:371-381
McDermott S, Royer J, Cope T, et al.
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Factors associated with ambulatory care sensitive emergency department visits for South Carolina Medicaid members with ID
J Intellect Disabil Res. 2018; 62:165-178
McDermott S, Royer J, Mann JR, Armour BS.
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Enhancing individual and community disaster preparedness: Individuals with disabilities and others with access and functional needs
Disabil Health J. 2018;11:170-173
Kruger J, Hinton CF, Sinclair LB, Silverman B.
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Considering disability and health: Reflections on the Healthy People 2020 Midcourse Review
Disabil Health J. 2018;11:333-338
Sinclair LB, Fox MH, Jonas BS, et al.

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The Guide to Community Preventive Services and Disability Inclusion
Am J Prev Med. 2017; 53:898-903
Hinton CF, Kraus LE, Richards TA, et al.
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Primary Care Providers’ Level of Preparedness for Recommending Physical Activity to Adults With Disabilities
Prev Chronic Dis 2017; 14:170328
Courtney-Long EA, Stevens AC, Carroll DD, et al.
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A longitudinal assessment of adherence to breast and cervical cancer screening recommendations among women with and without intellectual disability.
Prev Med. 2017 Jul;100:167-172.
Xu X, McDermott SW, Mann JR, Hardin JW, Deroche CB, Carroll DD, Courtney-Long EA.
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Socioeconomic Factors at the Intersection of Race and Ethnicity Influencing Health Risks for People with Disabilities
Courtney-Long, E.A., Romano, S.D., Carroll, D.D. et al. J. Racial and Ethnic Health Disparities (2017) 4: 213. doi:10.1007/s40615-016-0220-5
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Comparison of 2 Disability Measures, Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System, 2013
Prev Chronic Dis 2016;13:160080
Stevens AC, Courtney-Long EA, Okoro CA, Carroll DD.
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Prevalence and Causes of Paralysis—United States, 2013
Am J Public Health. 2016 Oct;106(10):1855-7.
Armour BS, Courtney-Long EA, Fox MH, Fredine H, Cahill A.
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Adults with One or More Functional Disabilities — United States, 2011–2014
MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep 2016 / 65(38);1021–1025
Stevens AC, Carroll DD, Courtney-Long EA, et al.
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Disability Within US Public Health School and Program Curricula
J Public Health Manag Pract. 2015 Jul-Aug;21(4):400-5
Sinclair LB, Tanenhaus RH, Courtney-Long E, Eaton DK.
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Development of a community health inclusion index: an evaluation tool for improving inclusion of people with disabilities in community health initiatives.
BMC Public Health (2015) 15:1050
Eisenberg Y, Rimmer J.H, Mehta T, Fox M.
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Prevalence of Disability and Disability Type among Adults, United States – 2013
MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep 2015; 64: 777-783.
Courtney-Long EA, Carroll DD, Zhang Q, et al.
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Hypertension Among US Adults by Disability Status and Type, National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, 2001–2010.
Stevens A, Courtney-Long E, Gillespie C, Armour BS. Prev Chronic Dis 2014;11:140162.
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Vital Signs: Disability and Physical Activity – United States, 2009-2012.
MMWR; May 2014; 63. Carroll D, Courtney-Long E, Stevens A, Sloan M, Lullo C, Visser S, Fox M, Armour B, Campbell V, Brown D, and Dorn, J.
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Chronic conditions and disability: Toward a conceptual model for national policy and practice considerations.
Disabil Health J. 2014;7(1):13–18.
Krahn G, Reyes M, Fox M.
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Disability Prevalence Among Healthy Weight, Overweight, and Obese Adults.
Obesity (Silver Spring). 2013 Apr;21(4):852-5. doi: 10.1002/oby.20312.
Armour BS, Courtney-Long EA, Campbell VA and Wethington HR.
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Disability, health, and multiple chronic conditions among people eligible for both Medicare and Medicaid, 2005-2010.
Preventing Chronic Disease. 2013 Sep 19;10:E157. doi: 10.5888/pcd10.130064.
Fox MH, Reichard A.
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Reducing Obesity among People with Disability.
Journal of Disability Policy Studies July 12, 2013 1044207313494236
Fox MH, Witten MH, Lullo C.
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Health Disparities of Adults with Intellectual Disabilities: What Do We Know? What Do We Do?
Journal of Applied Research in Intellectual Disabilities.  2013 Jul 31. doi: 10.1111/jar.12067.
Krahn G, Fox MH.
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Using Population-Based Data to Examine Preventive Services by Disability Type among Dually Eligible (Medicare/Medicaid) Adults.
The Disability and Health Journal. April, 2013; 6(2); 75-86.
Reichard A, Fox MH.
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A Tool for Enhancing Strategic Planning: A Modeled Use of the International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health.
Int J Health Plann Mgmt. 2013 Apr-Jun;28(2):172-80. doi: 10.1002/hpm.2125.
Sinclair LB, Fox MH, Betts DR.
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Estimating disability prevalence among adults by body mass index: 2003-2009 National Health Interview Survey.
Prev Chronic Dis. 2012; 9:120-136.
Armour BS, Courtney-Long E, Campbell VA, Wethington HR.
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Vital Signs: Walking Among Adults — United States, 2005 and 2010. 
MMWR 2012; 61(31); 595-601.
Berrigan D, Carroll DD,  Fulton JE, Galuska DA Brown DR, Dorn JM, Armour BS.
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Does childhood disability increase risk for child abuse and neglect?
Journal of Mental Health Research in Intellectual Disabilities. 2012;5(1):4-31.
Leeb RT, Bitsko RH, Merrick MT, Armour BS.
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Intervening factors for public health to consider for improving health-related quality of life among older adults with and without functional limitations.
American Journal of Public Health. 102(3), 496-502. Thompson, W., Zack, M.M., Krahn, G.L., Andresen, E., & Barile, J.P. (2012)
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CDC Grand Rounds: Public Health Practices to Include Persons with Disabilities.
Centers for Disease Control and Prevention.  MMWR 2013;62:697-701.
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Factors associated with self-reported mammography use for women with and women without a disability.
J Women’s Health 2011; 20:1279-86.
Courtney-Long E, Armour B, Frammartino B, Miller J.
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Aging with cerebral palsy and other disabilities: personal reflections and recommendations
Developmental Mental Medicine and Child Neurology; October 2009; 51 Supplement 4:12-5.
Jones GC.
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Effects of depressive symptoms on health behavior practices among older adults with vision loss
Rehabilitation Psychology; May 2009; 54(2): 164-72.
Jones GC, Rovner BW, Crews JE, Danielson ML. 
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State-level differences in breast and cervical cancer screening by disability status: United States, 2008
Women’s Health Issues; Nov-Dec 2009; 19(6): 406-14.
Armour BS, Thierry JM, Wolf LA.
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State-level Medicaid expenditures attributable to smoking
Preventing Chronic Disease; July 2009; 6(3): A84.
Armour BS, Finkelstein EA, Fiebelkorn IC.
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Developing summary scores of health-related quality of life for a population-based survey
Public Health Reports; January-February 2009; 124(1): 103-10.
Horner-Johnson W, Krahn G, Andresen E, Hall T; Rehabilitation Research and Training Center Expert Panel on Health Status Measurement.
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Disability and disability-adjusted life years: not the same
Public Health Reports; March-April 2009; 124(2): 197-202.
Grosse SD, Lollar DJ, Campbell VA, Chamie M.
No summary available.

Preparing for and responding to pandemic influenza: implications for
people with disabilities
American Journal of Public Health; October 2009; (99 Supp 2): S294-300.
Campbell VA, Gilyard JA, Sinclair L, Sternberg T, Kailes JI.
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Economic productivity by age and sex: 2007 estimates for the United States.
Medical Care; 2009; 47(7 Suppl 1): S94-S103.
Grosse SD, Krueger KV, Mvundura M.
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People with Disabilities
In Oxford Textbook of Public Health; 5th Edition; Oxford University Press; July 2009; 1657.
Lollar DJ, author of chapter; Detels R, Beaglehole R, Lansang MA, Gulliford M, editors.

Hospitalization for urinary tract infections as a signal of the quality of preventive health care received by people with spina bifida
Disability and Health Journal; 2009; 2(3): 145-152.
Armour BS, Ouyang L, Grosse SD, Campbell VA, Thibadeau J, Joseph D.
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Racial/Ethnic Disparities in Self-Rated Health Status Among Adults With and Without Disabilities — United States, 2004 — 2006
Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report; October 2008; 57(39): 1069-1073 CDC
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A profile of State Level differences in the Oral Health of People with and without Disabilities, in the US in 2004
Public Health Reports; January-February 2008; 123(1): 67-75.
Armour BS, Swanson M, Waldman BH, Pearlman SP.
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Age at disability onset and self-reported health status
BMC Public Health; January 2008; 8:10.
Jamoom EW, Horner-Johnson W, Suzuki R, Andresen EM, Campbell VA; RRTC Expert Panel on Health Status Measurement.
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Assessing cost effectiveness in health care: The history of the $50,000 per QALY threshold
Expert Review in Pharmacoeconomics and Outcomes Research; April 2008; 8(2): 165-178.
Grosse SD.
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Multiple Health Disparities among Minority Adults with Mobility Limitations: An application of the ICF Framework and Codes
Disability and Rehabilitation; 2008; 30(12-13);901-915.
Jones GC, Sinclair LB.
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Relationship between physical disabilities or long-term health problems and health risk behaviors or conditions among US high school students
Journal of School Health; April 2008; 78(5): 252-257.
Jones SE, Lollar DJ.
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Rehabilitation psychology and public health: commonalities, barriers, and bridges
Rehabilitation Psychology 2008;53(2):122-127.
Lollar DJ.
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Activity limitations among young adults with developmental disabilities: a population-based follow-up study
Research in Developmental Disabilities;
Van Naarden Braun K, Yeargin-Allsopp M, Lollar DJ.
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State-level prevalence of cigarette smoking and treatment advice, by disability status, United States, 2004
Prevention of Chronic Disease; October, 2007; 4(4); A86.
Armour BS, Champbell VA, Crews J, Malarcher A, Maurice E, Richard R.
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Smoking: Taxing Health and Social Security
Economic Review; 2007;92; Third Quarter; 27-41.
Armour BS, Pitts MM.

The Characteristics and Health of Caregivers and Care Recipients–North Carolina, 2005
Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report; June 2007; 56(21): 529-532. 
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Health care expenditures of children and adults with spina bifida in a privately insured U.S. population
Birth Defects Research Part A: Clinical and Molecular Teratology; 2007; 79(7): 552-558.
Ouyang L, Grosse SD, Armour BS, Waitzman NJ.
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Lessons from cost-effectiveness research for United States public health policy 
Annual Review of Public Health; 2007;28:365-391.
Grosse SD, Teutsch SM, Haddix AC.
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Supportive care needs of Americans: a major issue for women as both recipients and providers
Journal of Women’s Health; July 2007; 16(6): 784-789.
McGuire LC, Anderson LA, Talley RC, Crews JE.
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Framing the public health of caregiving
American Journal of Public Health; February 2007 ; 97(2): 224-8; Erratum in: American Journal of Public Health; March 2007; 97(3): 393.
Talley RC, Crews JE.
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Quality of life and resilience in adolescents with a mobility disability
Journal of Pediatric Psychology; 2007;32(3):370-379.
Alriksson-Schmidt AI, Wallander J, Biasini F.
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Physical activity among adults with a disability — United States 2005
Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report; October 2007; 56(39):1021-1024.
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State-Specific prevalence of arthritis attributable work limitations – United States, 2003
Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report; 2007; 56(40):1045-1049.
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Double Jeopardy: The effects of Comorbid Conditions Among Older People with Vision Loss
Journal of Visual Impairment and Blindness; 2006;100 (Spec. Suppl.):824-848.
Crews JE, Jones GC, Kim JH.
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The View from the Crossroads of Public Health and Vision (Re)habilitation
Journal of Visual Impairment and Blindness; 2006;100(Spec. Suppl.):773-339.
Crews JE, Kirchner C, Lollar DJ.
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Environmental barriers to health care among persons with disabilities — Los Angeles County, California, 2002-2003
Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report; December 2006; 55(48):1300-1303.
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Health, preventive health care, and health care access among women with disabilities in the 1994-1995 National Health Interview Survey, Supplement on Disability
Women’s Health Issues; Nov-Dec 2006;16:297-312.
Chevarley FM, Thierry JM, Gill CJ, Ryerson AB, Nosek MA.
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Toward International Comparability of Survey Statistics on Visual Impairment: The DISTAB Project
Journal of Visual Impairment and Blindness 2006; 100:11-25.
Hendershot GE, Crews JE.
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Barriers and strategies affecting the utilisation of primary preventive services for people with physical disabilities: A Qualitative inquiry
Health and Social Care in the Community; July 2006; 14(4):284-293.
Kroll T, Jones GC, Kehn M, Neri MT.
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Starting early: promoting the mental health of women and girls throughout the life span
Journal of Women’s Health; Nov 2005; 14(9):754-763.
Lesesne CA, Kennedy C.
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Diagnosis to function: classification for children and youths
Journal of Developmental and Behavioral Pediatrics; August 2005; 26(4); 323-330.
Lollar DJ, Simeonsson RJ.
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State and metropolitan-area estimates of disability in the United States, 2001
American Journal of Public Health; November 2005; 95(11): 1964-9.
Okoro CA, Balluz LS, Campbell VA, Holt JB, Mokdad AH.
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Additional Selected Articles

Economic costs associated with mental retardation, cerebral palsy, hearing loss, and vision impairment — United States, 2003
Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report; January 2004; 53(3): 57-59.
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Vision impairment and hearing loss among community-dwelling older Americans: implications for health and functioning
American Journal of Public Health; May 2004; 94(5): 823-829.
Crews JE, Campbell VA.
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All Articles

Search a database of articles that have been published by CDC authors within the National Center on Birth Defects and Developmental Disabilities from 1990 to present. Search with the keywords: “disability and health,” “disability,” “women and disability,” “children with disabilities,” “developmental disability” and “vision impairment.”