The following materials provide information on Legionnaires’ disease, including tools for investigating outbreaks and developing water management programs.
What Clinicians Need to Know about Legionnaires’ Disease [2 pages]
This 2-page fact sheet describes diagnosis, testing, treatment, reporting, etiology, transmission, risk factors, common sources of infection, and prevention of Legionnaires’ disease.
2016 Vital Signs: Legionnaires’ Disease Outbreaks [6.24 MB, 4 pages]
This 4-page fact sheet describes the most common settings for Legionnaires’ disease outbreaks that CDC investigated between 2000 through 2014, explains the reasons for those outbreaks occurring, and provides tips for what can be done to help prevent Legionnaires’ disease. Also see Vital Signs.
This fact sheet is also available in Spanish [6.27 MB, 4 pages].
2017 Vital Signs: Legionnaires’ Disease in Healthcare Facilities [3.55 MB, 4 pages]
This 4-page fact sheet describes the problem of Legionnaires’ disease in healthcare facilities and how effective water management programs can prevent it with an emphasis on establishing a team approach. Also see Vital Signs.
This fact sheet is also available in Spanish [2.75 MB, 4 pages].
Legionnaires’ Disease Prevention: Making a Splash with Safe Water [2 pages]
This 2-page fact sheet explains how Legionella affects hotels and what can be done about it.
Legionnaires’ Disease Prevention: Providing a Home for Guests, not Legionella [4 pages]
This 4-page fact sheet explains how Legionella can affect vacation rental properties and what owners and managers can do to reduce the risk for Legionella growth and spread.
Disinfection of Hot Tubs that Contain Legionella [2 pages]
This 2-page fact sheet explains the steps you should take if Legionella is found in your hot tub.
Sampling/Environmental Assessment Videos
These six videos were designed to help with the environmental aspects of Legionnaires’ disease outbreak investigations. They include information conducting environmental assessments, developing sample plans, and sampling different potential sources.
How Legionella Affects Building Water Systems and People
Learn four key steps that can lead to Legionella growing in building water systems and spreading to people.
This is also available in Spanish.
Illustration of Legionella pneumophila, the bacterium that causes the majority of Legionnaires’ disease cases and outbreaks.
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Cooling towers, which are often part of the air conditioning systems of large buildings, are a common source of Legionella exposure in outbreaks. Cooling towers need to be properly maintained in order to prevent Legionnaires’ disease.
Download this graphic (5.37 MB, 96 dpi resolution)
Water samples from a building experiencing a Legionnaires’ disease outbreak are unpacked at CDC’s Legionella Laboratory.
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A CDC microbiologist pours water samples from a building experiencing a Legionnaires’ disease outbreak into a filtration system to test for Legionella.
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Legionella pneumophila, the bacterium that can cause Legionnaires’ disease, growing on specialized microbiological media (BCYE).
Download this graphic (17.3 MB, 300 dpi resolution)
Commercial Vehicle Operators and Legionnaires’ Disease
Release date: 5/10/2022
Data suggest that commercial vehicle operators may have a higher chance of getting Legionnaires’ disease. Learn how commercial vehicle operators can decrease the risk of growth and spread of Legionella in their vehicles.
Legionnaires’ Disease and Water Management Programs
Release date: 4/10/2020
Water management programs identify hazardous conditions and take steps to minimize the growth and transmission of Legionella and other waterborne pathogens in building water systems.
Keeping Cool Under Pressure: NYC Legionnaires’ Disease Outbreak, Summer 2015
Release date: 9/29/2015
Investigators sprang into action after noticing a spike in reports of Legionnaires’ disease from clinics and hospitals in the Bronx, New York City.
Rising Incidence of Legionnaires’ Disease, United States, 1992-2018 (20:54 minutes, Date Released: 3/3/2022)
Albert Barskey, an epidemiologist at CDC in Atlanta, discusses the increase of Legionnaires’ disease within the United States.
Legionnaires’ Disease and Compost (9:21 minutes, Date Released: 9/27/2017)
Dr. Brian Raphael, a CDC research microbiologist, discusses Legionella bacteria in compost.
CDC Vital Signs — Legionnaires’ Disease (2017) (1:14 minute, Date Released: 6/6/2017)
This podcast is based on the June 2017 CDC Vital Signs report, which highlights the problem Legionnaires’ disease poses for health care facilities. Legionnaires’ disease is a serious, often deadly lung infection. People most commonly get it by breathing in water droplets containing Legionella germs. Learn how to prevent infections from Legionella.
This podcast is also available in Spanish.
CDC Vital Signs–Legionnaires’ Disease (2016) (1:14 minutes, Date Released: 6/7/2016)
This podcast is based on the June 2016 CDC Vital Signs report and focuses on the importance of using water management programs in buildings to help prevent outbreaks of Legionnaires’ disease. People can get Legionnaires’ disease, a serious type of lung infection, from breathing in small water droplets of water containing Legionella germs. Learn what can be done to help prevent Legionnaires’ disease outbreaks and keep people safe.
This podcast is also available in Spanish.
Developing a Water Management Program to Reduce Legionella Growth & Spread
This 36-page toolkit is a practical guide to implementing industry standards for buildings with large or complex water systems. This toolkit will help you develop and implement a water management program to reduce your building’s risk for growing and spreading Legionella. If you already have a program, this toolkit will help you assess and strengthen it. Included are practical resources to help you ensure that your water management program is comprehensive, effective, and in line with industry standards. This toolkit also highlights special considerations for healthcare facilities.
Developing a Legionnaires’ Disease Laboratory Response Plan
This 29-page practical guide for state and local public health laboratories provides a road map to create a Legionnaires’ disease laboratory response plan (LDLRP). This LDLRP toolkit includes resources for identifying a response team, creating in-house investigation workflows, and establishing relationships with referral laboratories. Use the toolkit’s sample worksheets to prepare a plan for how your laboratory will respond to a Legionnaires’ disease outbreak.
Toolkit for Controlling Legionella in Common Sources of Exposure
This 6-module toolkit provides public health and building owners and operators with concise, actionable information on controlling Legionella in commonly implicated sources of Legionnaires’ disease outbreaks.
Preventing Legionnaires’ Disease: A Training on Legionella Water Management Programs
This training from CDC and partners assists with creating a water management program to reduce risk for Legionnaires’ disease. This training
- Outlines how to reduce risk for Legionella in facilities
- Helps align water management programs with ASHRAE 188
- Is free and available online
- Helps build common language
- Includes case studies, templates, and other practical resources
- CDC planning guides and toolkits (not Legionella-specific)