- Starting in 1989, Congress designated a specific portion of each state’s Special Supplemental Nutrition Program for Women, Infants and Children (WIC) budget allocation to be used for the promotion and support of breastfeeding among WIC participants. More than five years after the government started supporting promotional efforts, breastfeeding rates among WIC participants were considerably lower than for women of higher socioeconomic levels. In 1995, 59.7 percent of infants in the U.S. were breastfed at birth while only 46.6 percent of infants in WIC programs were. At six months postpartum, the rates were 21.6 percent nationally and only 12.7 percent for WIC-enrolled infants.In September 1995, Best Start Social Marketing, a non-profit social marketing organization based in Tampa, Florida, was funded by the U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA), which administers WIC, to develop a comprehensive, national breastfeeding promotional campaign through WIC.
- To develop a problem statement, a community-led coalition looked at available local data and found that:
- Teen pregnancy and rates of sexually transmitted infection (STI) were high among youth ages 15-19, especially in 15 Sacramento area zip codes.
- The 1995 California Youth Risk Behavior Survey (conducted by the California Department of Education) estimated that 45% of high school students were sexually active.
- AIDS diagnoses among the city’s young adults suggested that infection indeed was occurring during teen years.
Problem statement: Youth ages 14-18 residing in 15 zip codes in the Sacramento area are at unacceptably high risk of HIV infection.
Appendix B: Health Problem Worksheet
Categorize the causes as direct and indirect, and as risk and protective factors. Organize them in a logical sequence by completing a Health Problem Analysis Worksheet. A sample flowchart showing causes of obesity among rural adult workers may be helpful.
Weigh the factors and indicate the primary ones on your chart. How often does a given factor play a role? Which factors are most likely to:
- affect the health problem (e.g., among elementary-aged school children, safe places to play outside may account for more variation in exercise patterns than attitudes towards exercise)
- change as a result of programmatic action (e.g., a social marketing program can’t eliminate genetic risk factors)
Do some of the causal arrows go both ways? Adjust your Problem Analysis chart to reflect any reciprocal influences.
Appendix C: Conducting a SWOT analysis
- How relevant is the problem to your organization’s mission/goals?
- Where does the problem fit in your organization’s priorities?
- What knowledge is available to ameliorate the problem, and do you have access to that information?
- What is the state of relevant technology?
- Do you have the human, technical and financial resources you need to address the problem?
- What activities can you do in-house?
- What activities will you need to contract for, and what challenges are presented by the contracting process?
- What work is already underway to address the problem, and who is doing that work?
- What gaps exist?
- What political support and resistance surrounds the problem?
- What organizations or activities affect the problem indirectly (that work “upstream” in your health problem analysis could be potential partners?
- Are there ethical concerns associated with any of the possible interventions?
Appendix D: Basic Social Marketing Questions
You need to know as much as possible about:
- the barriers and benefits of the recommended behavior
- the barriers and benefits of its competition
- the benefits audience members seek in life overall
- what would make the behavior easier, more comfortable or fun, and more popular
- how, where and when the behavior takes place
- who helps create these opportunities or has influence on this audience
- through which media or channels the audience gets its information
**Take note of whether audience segments vary in their answers to these questions.
Appendix E: Market Research Planning Template
If you can afford it, you can get help carrying out some, or all, of your market research plan from:
- university faculty or graduate students in marketing, communication, advertising or social science departments
- professional market research firms Use this checklist to review research bids and to select research vendors.
Use this checklist to review research bids and to select research vendors.
- Descriptions of past projects
- List of clients (if you are unfamiliar with the vendor, check the company’s references)
- Location of the research facility: Is it conveniently located? Accessible by public transportation? If not, do they provide transportation assistance, such as taxi money or van service? What does this add to cost?
- A diagram of the table/seating arrangements for focus groups (What shape is the table? How big is the table? The room?)
- The size and features of their observation room(s)
- Details about audio- and video-recording arrangements and costs
- Details about food arrangements for participants and observers, such as staff from your organization or your collaborating ad agency
- A description of the vendor’s moderator services
- A description of the vendor’s method of recruitment and what geographic area the company covers
- Recommendations for participant incentives
- Reasonable rates for the services they will provide (remember to ask for nonprofit or government rates).
|Market research results summary worksheet|
|Conclusions and Recommendations|
Appendix F: Creative Brief Template
Describe the person that you want to reach with your communication. What do they value? How do they see themselves? What are their aspirations? Include a primary and secondary influencer audience if appropriate. Include any relevant audience research.
What do you want your target audiences to think, feel, or do after experiencing the communication?
What beliefs, cultural practices, pressure, misinformation, etc. stand between your audience and the desired behavior?
Select one single benefit that will outweigh the obstacle in the mind of your target audience. Suggested format: If I (desired behavior) then (immediate benefit)
This is the substantiation for the key promise; i.e. the reasons why the promise is true. Often this will begin with a ‘because’.
What feeling should your communication have? Should it be authoritative, humorous, emotional, etc?
What channels will you employ for the communication? TV, Radio, Print ads, point of purchase materials, promotional giveaways, earned media (PR) etc.
What opportunities (times and places) exist for reaching your audience? When is your audience most open to getting your message? Examples: World AIDS day, Mother’s day, etc.
Any other critical information for the writers and designers? Will the communication be in more than one language or dialect? Should it be tailored to a low literate audience? Etc.
Appendix G: Timeline and Budget
Checklist for Creating an Effective Timeline
Whatever charting option you choose, ensure that your timeline or management matrix addresses all the important parts of your intervention, including, at least:
- securing necessary resources, hiring staff, recruiting volunteers, training, pretesting, implementation, monitoring, etc.)
- Start and completion dates for each activity, including long-term and repeated activities
- Major deadlines, including due dates for deliverables, accomplishments, reports, etc.
- Specific personnel or organization(s) responsible for each task or activity
- Internal review and approval processes that your agency requires
Sample Budget Worksheet
|Executive Director||Supervision||10% of salary = $10,000
25% benefits = $2,500
|Project Director||Hired in month one||11 months at $35,000/yr = $32,083
25% benefits = $8,025
|Tutors||12 working 10 hours per||12 x 10 x 13 x $7.00 = $10,920 week for 3 months|
|Office Space||Requires 25% of current space||25% x $20,000 = $5,000|
|Overhead||20% of project cost||20% x $64,628 = $12,926|
Appendix H: Qualitative versus Quantitative Research Methods
|Qualitative Methods||Quantitative Methods|
|Methods include focus groups, in-depth interviews, and reviews of documents for types of themes||Surveys, structured interviews & observations, and reviews of records or documents for numeric information|
|Primarily inductive process used to formulate theory or hypotheses||Primarily deductive process used to test pre-specified concepts, constructs, and hypotheses that make up a theory|
|More subjective: describes a problem or condition from the point of view of those experiencing it||More objective: provides observed effects (interpreted by researchers) of a program on a problem or condition|
|More in-depth information on a few cases||Less in-depth but more breadth of information across a large number of cases|
|Unstructured or semi-structured response options||Fixed response options|
|No statistical tests||Statistical tests are used for analysis|
|Can be valid and reliable: largely depends on skill and rigor of the researcher||Can be valid and reliable: largely depends on the measurement device or instrument used|
|Time expenditure lighter on the planning end and heavier during the analysis phase||Time expenditure heavier on the planning phase and lighter on the analysis phase|
|Less generalizable||More generalizable|
Appendix I: Dissemination Formats
You have a choice of many options for reporting your findings:
- Comprehensive written report
- Executive summary
- Press release/announcement/briefing
- Press conference
- Professional presentation
- Publication in scientific journal
- Short articles in partners’ newsletters or local community publications
- Presentation of findings at staff meetings or other gatherings at work
- “Brown-bag” meetings with other organizations to share program experiences
- Response to inquiries received by phone, mail, or e-mail or from conference presentations.