Predefined SEER*Stat Variables for Calculating the Number of Associated Cancers for Selected Risk Factors

Updated June 3, 2019

Although cancer represents many heterogeneous diseases, some cancer types share common risk factors.1 For example, conclusive evidence links cancer at multiple sites with tobacco use, alcohol use, human papillomavirus (HPV) infection, excess body weight, and physical inactivity.26 Because risk factor information is not routinely collected by cancer registries, estimates for risk factor-associated cancers often are based only on cancer type. Using these standard definitions for risk factor-associated cancers can help facilitate comparisons of cancer burden across states and communities. Keeping in mind that individual cancer cases may occur among persons who were or were not exposed to a risk factor, population-based risk factor-associated cancer rates can help identify communities with disproportionately high cancer rates, which reflect, in part, the population’s exposure to cancer risk factors. These exposures can be reduced through clinical preventive services and community-based approaches, the impact of which can be monitored with cancer surveillance data.

The following tables show which International Classification of Disease for Oncology (ICD-O)-3 site codes, histology codes, and additional restrictions were used to define and code the predefined SEER*Stat variables. Further restrictions may be made depending on the analysis. Refer to the SEER*Stat tutorial on merged variablesexternal icon for information on editing a merged variable.

Alcohol-Associated Cancers2, 7
Cancer ICD-O-3 site codes ICD-O-3 histology codes Additional restrictions
Lip, oral cavity, pharynx C00.0–14.8 8000–9049, 9056–9139, 9141–9589
Esophagus C15.0–15.9 8000–9049, 9056–9139, 9141–9589
Colon and rectum C18.0–20.9, C26.0 8000–9049, 9056–9139, 9141–9589
Liver C22.0 8000–9049, 9056–9139, 9141–9589
Larynx C32.0–32.9 8000–9049, 9056–9139, 9141–9589
Female breast C50.0–50.9 8000–9049, 9056–9139, 9141–9589 Restrict to females
Human Papillomavirus-Associated Cancers3, 811
Cancer ICD-O-3 site codes ICD-O-3 histology codes Additional restrictions
Oropharyngeal squamous cell carcinoma C01.9, 02.4, 02.8, 05.1–05.2, 09.0–09.1, 09.8–09.9, 10.0–10.4, 10.8–10.9, 14.0, 14.2, 14.8 8050–8084, 8120–8131 Restrict to microscopically confirmed
Anal and rectal squamous cell carcinoma C21.0–21.8, 20.9 8050–8084, 8120–8131 Restrict to microscopically confirmed
Vulvar squamous cell carcinoma C51.0–51.9 8050–8084, 8120–8131 Restrict to females and restrict to microscopically confirmed
Vaginal squamous cell carcinoma C52.9 8050–8084, 8120–8131 Restrict to females and restrict to microscopically confirmed
Cervical carcinoma C53.0–53.9 8010–8671, 8940–8941 Restrict to females and restrict to microscopically confirmed
Penile squamous cell carcinoma C60.0–60.9 8050–8084, 8120–8131 Restrict to males and restrict to microscopically confirmed
Obesity-Associated Cancers4, 5, 12
Cancer ICD-O-3 site codes ICD-O-3 histology codes Additional restrictions
Esophageal adenocarcinoma C15.0–15.9 8140–8575 Restrict to microscopically confirmed
Gastric cardia C16.0 8000-9049, 9056–9139, 9141–9589
Colon and rectum C18.0–20.9, C26.0 8000–9049, 9056–9139, 9141–9589
Liver C22.0 8000–9049, 9056–9139, 9141–9589
Gallbladder C23.9 8000–9049, 9056–9139, 9141–9589
Pancreas C25.0–25.9 8000–9049, 9056–9139, 9141–9589
Multiple myeloma C42.1 9732
Postmenopausal female breast C50.0–50.9 8000–9049, 9056–9139, 9141–9589 Restrict to females and restrict to age ≥50 years
Corpus and uterus, NOS (not otherwise specified) C54.0–54.9, C55.9 8000–9049, 9056–9139, 9141–9589 Restrict to females
Ovary C56.9 8000–9049, 9056–9139, 9141–9589 Restrict to females
Kidney C64.9 8000–9049, 9056–9139, 9141–9589
Meningioma C70.0-70.1, 70.9 9530-9539
Thyroid C73.9 8000–9049, 9056–9139, 9141–9589
Physical Inactivity-Associated Cancers5, 12
Cancer ICD-O-3 site codes ICD-O-3 histology codes Additional restrictions
Colon C18.0–18.9, C26.0 8000–9049, 9056–9139, 9141–9589
Postmenopausal female breast C50.0–50.9 8000–9049, 9056–9139, 9141–9589 Restrict to females and restrict to age ≥50 years
Corpus and uterus, NOS (not otherwise specified) C54.0–54.9, C55.9 8000–9049, 9056–9139, 9141–9589 Restrict to females
Tobacco-Associated Cancers6
Cancer ICD-O-3 site codes ICD-O-3 histology codes Additional restrictions
Lip, oral cavity, pharynx C00.0–14.8 8000–9049, 9056–9139, 9141–9589
Esophagus C15.0–15.9 8000–9049, 9056–9139, 9141–9589
Stomach C16.0–16.9 8000–9049, 9056–9139, 9141–9589
Colon and rectum C18.0–20.9, C26.0 8000–9049, 9056–9139, 9141–9589
Liver C22.0 8000–9049, 9056–9139, 9141–9589
Pancreas C25.0–25.9 8000–9049, 9056–9139, 9141–9589
Larynx C32.0–32.9 8000–9049, 9056–9139, 9141–9589
Trachea, lung, bronchus C33.9–34.9 8000–9049, 9056–9139, 9141–9589
Cervix uteri C53.0–53.9 8000–9049, 9056–9139, 9141–9589 Restrict to females
Kidney and renal pelvis C64.9–65.9 8000–9049, 9056–9139, 9141–9589
Urinary bladder C67.0–67.9 8000–9049, 9056–9139, 9141–9589
Acute myeloid leukemia 9840; 9861; 9865–9869; 9871–9874; 9895–9898; 9910–9911; 9920

References

  1. Henley SJ, Singh SD, King J, Wilson RJ, O’Neil ME, Ryerson AB. Invasive cancer incidence and survival—United States, 2013. MMWR 2017;66(3):69–75. DOI: 10.15585/mmwr.mm6603a1external icon
  2. International Agency for Research on Cancer. IARC monographs on the evaluation of carcinogenic risks to humans: Volume 100E: Personal Habits and Indoor Combustions: Consumption of Alcoholic Beverages.external icon Lyon, France: International Agency for Research on Cancer 2012;100E:373–499.
  3. International Agency for Research on Cancer. IARC monographs on the evaluation of carcinogenic risks to humans. Volume 90: Human Papillomaviruses.external icon Lyon, France: International Agency for Research on Cancer; 2007;90.
  4. Lauby-Secretan B, Scoccianti C, Loomis D, Grosse Y, Bianchini F, Straif K. Body fatness and cancer—viewpoint of the IARC Working Group.external icon New England Journal of Medicine 2016;375:794-798.
  5. World Cancer Research Fund / American Institute for Cancer Research. Diet, Nutrition, Physical Activity and Cancer: A Global Perspective.external icon Continuous Update Project Expert Report 2018.
  6. U.S. Department of Health and Human Services. The Health Consequences of Smoking—50 Years of Progress: A Report of the Surgeon General. Atlanta, GA: U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion, Office on Smoking and Health; 2014.
  7. International Agency for Research on Cancer. IARC monographs on the evaluation of carcinogenic risks to humans: Volume 96: Alcohol Consumption and Ethyl Carbamate.external icon Lyon, France: International Agency for Research on Cancer; 2010;96.
  8. Watson M, Saraiya M, Ahmed F, Cardinez CJ, Reichman ME, Weir HK, Richards TB. Using population-based cancer registry data to assess the burden of human papillomavirus-associated cancers in the United States: overview of methods.external icon Cancer 2008;113(10 Suppl):2841–2854.
  9. Saraiya M, Unger ER, Thompson TD, Lynch CF, Hernandez BY, Lyu CW, Steinau M, Watson M, Wilkinson EJ, Hopenhayn C, Copeland G, Cozen W, Peters ES, Huang Y, Saber MS, Altekruse S, Goodman MT; HPV Typing of Cancers Workgroup. US assessment of HPV types in cancers: implications for current and 9-valent HPV vaccines.external icon Journal of the National Cancer Institute 2015;107(6):djv086.
  10. Viens LJ, Henley SJ, Watson M, Markowitz LE, Thomas CC, Thompson TD, Razzaghi H, Saraiya M, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). Human papillomavirus–associated cancers—United States, 2008–2012. MMWR 2016;65(26):661–666.
  11. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. How Many Cancers Are Linked with HPV Each Year? Atlanta, GA: U.S. Department of Health and Human Services.
  12. Eheman C, Henley SJ, Ballard-Barbash R, Jacobs EJ, Schymura MJ, Noone AM, Pan L, Anderson RN, Fulton JE, Kohler BA, Jemal A, Ward E, Plescia M, Ries LA, Edwards BK. Annual report to the nation on the status of cancer, 1975–2008, featuring cancers associated with excess weight and lack of sufficient physical activity.external icon Cancer 2012;118:2338–2366.
View Page In:pdf icon [PDF-77KB]