Hematologic Cancer Incidence, Survival, and Prevalence

U.S. Cancer Statistics Data Briefs, No. 30
September 2022

This data brief uses the most recent data available at the time of publication. More recent data may be available in a newer data brief or in the U.S. Cancer Statistics Data Visualizations tool.

Hematologic cancers begin in the cells of the immune system or in blood-forming tissue, such as the bone marrow. Common types of hematologic cancer are lymphoma, myeloma, and leukemia.

Lymphomas start in the lymph system, the part of the immune system that fights infection. Because the lymph system is found throughout the body, lymphoma can begin almost anywhere. The two main types are Hodgkin lymphoma and non-Hodgkin lymphoma.

Myeloma is a cancer of the plasma cells, the white blood cells that make antibodies that protect against infection.

Leukemia is a cancer of the blood cells and bone marrow (the soft, sponge-like tissue in the center of most bones that makes blood cells). There are several types of leukemia, grouped by whether it grows faster (acute) or slower (chronic) and whether it starts in lymphocytic cells or myelogenous cells.

Table 1. Estimated 5-year Limited Duration Prevalence Counts for Malignant Hematologic Cancer, by Sex and Cancer Typea.
Cancer Type Male Female Total
Hodgkin Lymphoma 20,851 17,437 38,289
Non-Hodgkin Lymphoma 139,004 119,505 258,510
Myeloma 49,668 40,489 90,157
Leukemias 97,183 69,229 166,412
Total 306,706 246,660 553,368

aThis table shows the estimated number of people alive as of January 1, 2019, who were diagnosed with a malignant hematologic cancer from January 1, 2014, to December 31, 2018. Numbers may not sum to totals because of rounding.

Data Sources

Data in this brief come from U.S. Cancer Statistics, the official federal cancer statistics.

U.S. Cancer Statistics incidence data cover 99% of the U.S. population and are from population-based registries that participate in CDC’s National Program of Cancer Registries (NPCR) and/or the National Cancer Institute’s Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results (SEER) Program and met high-quality data criteria during 2015–2019 for the 2021 data submission period.

U.S. Cancer Statistics prevalence data cover 88% of the U.S. population and are from 42 NPCR registries that met high-quality data criteria for the 2021 data submission period and conducted linkage with the National Death Index or active patient follow-up.

More Information
Suggested Citation

Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Hematologic Cancer Incidence, Survival, and Prevalence. USCS Data Brief, no. 30. Atlanta, GA: Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, US Department of Health and Human Services; 2022.