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Infant Feeding Practices Study II and Its Year Six Follow-Up

IFPS II and Y6FU Collaborators

U.S. Department of Health and Human Services

  • Food and Drug Administration
  • Centers for Disease Control and Prevention
  • DHHS Office on Women’s Health
  • National Institutes of Health, National Institute of Child Health and Human Development and Office of Dietary Supplements
  • Health Resources and Services Administration, Maternal and Child Health Bureau


In response to the nation’s continued need to understand and improve the health status of mothers and children, the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) and Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, in collaboration with other federal agencies, conducted the Infant Feeding Practices Study II (IFPS II) and its Year Six Follow-Up (Y6FU). IFPS II is a longitudinal survey of mothers beginning in the third trimester of pregnancy and collecting data approximately monthly throughout their infant’s first year. Eligibility criteria included that the mother be at least 18 years old and the infant be a singleton born at ≥35 weeks gestation, weighing at least 5 lbs, and without medical conditions that would affect feeding. In 2012, when children from IFPS II were 6 years of age, mothers were re-contacted to participate in a cross-sectional mail survey for a follow-up. These studies provide detailed information about the following:


U.S. Department of Health and Human Services

  • National Cancer Institute

U.S. Department of Agriculture

  • Economic Research Service
  • Food and Nutrition Service

University Experts

Baseline Study

  • Foods fed to infants, including breast milk and infant formula.
  • Factors that may contribute to infant feeding practices and to breastfeeding success.
  • Mothers’ intrapartum hospital experiences, sources of support, and postpartum depression.
  • Mothers’ employment status and child care arrangements.
  • Infant sleeping arrangements.
  • Other issues such as food allergies, experiences with breast pumps, and WIC participation.
  • Diets of pregnant and postpartum women.


  • Child’s weight and height.
  • Child’s physical, oral health, behavioral, and development outcomes.
  • Child’s food allergy.
  • Child’s dietary practice and use of herbal or botanical remedies.
  • Child’s eating behaviors.
  • Home food environment.
  • Home environment and exposure to inhaled contaminants.
  • Child’s physical activity level, screen time, and sleep patterns.
  • Information about mothers, such as anthropometry, physical activity, weight and height, depression, pregnancy and breastfeeding history, work status, and maternal feeding style.

The study also served as a vital component to an evaluation of the Department of Health and Human Services’ (DHHS) National Breastfeeding Awareness Campaign.

Supporting Statement for OMB Review [PDF-132KB]
A comprehensive description of the Infant Feeding Practices Study II is included as part of the HHS Office of Management and Budget (OMB) Clearance Application for the survey.

Publications based on the IFPS II
Many research papers have been published using data from the IFPS II.