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Objectives

Overall Objectives

  • To determine the incidence and epidemiologic characteristics of invasive disease due to Haemophilus influenzae, Neisseria meningitidis, group A Streptococcus (GAS), group B Streptococcus (GAS), and Streptococcus pneumoniae in multiple large diverse U.S. populations
  • To determine molecular epidemiologic patterns and microbiologic characteristics of public health relevance for isolates causing the above invasive infections
  • To provide an infrastructure for further research, such as special studies aimed at identifying risk factors for disease and post-licensure evaluation of vaccines

Pathogen-Specific Objectives

Group A Streptococcus

  • To determine the distribution of emm types and the association between specific emm types and disease severity in order to guide vaccine development
  • To track antimicrobial resistance among invasive GAS isolates
  • To identify potentially modifiable risk factors for community-acquired GAS infections
  • To identify potentially preventable GAS infections, such as nosocomial (postpartum and post-surgical) infections or invasive infections in closed facilities (e.g., nursing homes)

Group B Streptococcus

  • To assess the impact and implementation of current perinatal GBS disease prevention guidelines and update the evidence base available for policy decisions related to GBS prevention
  • To monitor the impact of intrapartum prophylaxis on GBS resistance and non-GBS neonatal sepsis
  • To characterize trends in invasive GBS disease epidemiology in other age groups, particularly late-onset neonatal disease and adult disease
  • To identify serotypes responsible for disease in order to guide vaccine development

Haemophilus influenzae

  • To evaluate progress in the elimination of serotype b disease
  • To detect possible emergence of disease due to other capsular types
  • To determine appropriate verification and validation criteria for current and potential serotyping methods

Neisseria meningitidis

  • To document the epidemiology of meningococcal disease in the United States and monitor trends over time
  • To evaluate the effectiveness of meningococcal vaccines and impact on disease burden
  • To monitor the molecular epidemiology of serogroup B meningococcal vaccine antigens using isolates of serogroup B N. meningitidis collected through ABCs

Streptococcus pneumoniae

  • To track emerging antimicrobial resistance in pneumococcal isolates
  • To evaluate the impact of pneumococcal conjugate vaccines on disease burden in children and on antimicrobial resistance among children
  • To evaluate the impact of a pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV13), as well as the existing polysaccharide vaccine (PPSV23), on disease burden and on antimicrobial resistance among adults

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