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  1. American Lung Association of Sacramento-Emigrant Trails. (2000). Thumbs Up! Thumbs Down! A program to reduce tobacco use in movies. Retrieved January 21, 2003.
  2. Dalton, M.A., Tickle, J.J., Sargent, J.D., Beach, M.L., Ahrens, M.B., & Heatherton, T.F. (2002). The incidence and context of tobacco use in popular movies from 1988 to 1997. Preventive Medicine, 34(5), 516–523.
  3. DuRant, R.H., Rome, E.S., Rich, M., Allred, E., Emans, S.J., & Woods, E.R. (1997). Tobacco and alcohol use behaviors portrayed in music videos: A content analysis. American Journal of Public Health, 87(7), 1131–1135.
  4. Dyak, B.L. (2000). Getting the media message straight: Entertainment Industries Council monitors motion picture industry for excess smoking, drinking or drug use in a movie. Behavioral Health Management, 20(4), 48.
  5. Escamilla, G., Cradock, A.L., & Kawachi, I. (2000). Women and smoking in Hollywood movies: A content analysis. American Journal of Public Health, 90(3), 412–414.
  6. Everett, S.A., Schnuth, R.L., & Tribble, J.L. (1998). Tobacco and alcohol use in top-grossing American films. Journal of Community Health, 23(4), 317–324.
  7. Gerbner, G., & Ozyegin, N. (1997). Alcohol, tobacco, and illicit drugs in entertainment television, commercials, news, “reality shows,” movies, and music channels. Princeton, New Jersey: Robert Wood Johnson Foundation.
  8. Glantz, S. (2001). Smoking in teenagers and watching films showing smoking. British Medical Journal, 323, 1378–1379.
  9. McCool, J.P., Cameron, L.D., & Petrie, K.J. (2001). Adolescent perceptions of smoking imagery in film. Social Science & Medicine, 52(10), 1577–1587.
  10. McIntosh, W.D., Bazzini, D.G., Smith, S.M., & Wayne, S.M. (1998). Who smokes in Hollywood? Characteristics of smokers in popular films from 1940 to 1989. Addictive Behaviors, 23(3), 395–398.
  11. Mekemson, C., & Glantz, S. (2002). How the industry built its relationship with Hollywood. Tobacco Control, 11(1), 181–191.
  12. Pechmann, C., & Shih, C.F. (1999). Smoking scenes in movies and antismoking advertisements before movies: Effects on youth. Journal of Marketing, 63(3), 1.
  13. Sargent, J.D., Beach, M.L., Dalton, M.A., Mott, L.A., Tickle, J., Ahrens, M.B., & Heatherton, T.F. (2001). Effect of seeing tobacco use in films on trying smoking among adolescents: Cross sectional study. British Medical Journal, 323, 1394–1397.
  14. Sargent, J.D., Dalton, M.A., Beach, M.L., Mott, L.A., Tickle, J.J., Ahrens, M.B., & Heatherton, T.F. (2002). Viewing tobacco use in movies: Does it shape attitudes that mediate adolescent smoking? American Journal of Preventive Medicine, 22(3), 137–145.
  15. Shields, D.L., Carol, J. (1999). Hollywood on tobacco: How the entertainment industry understands tobacco portrayal. Tobacco Control, 8(4), 378–386.
  16. Stockwell, T.F., & Glantz, S. (1997). Tobacco use is increasing in popular films. Tobacco Control, 6, 282–284.
  17. Thompson, K.M., & Yokota, F. (2001). Depiction of alcohol, tobacco, and other substances in G-rated animated feature films. Pediatrics, 107(6), 1369–1374.
  18. World Health Organization. (2000). Women and tobacco: Moving from policy to action (Part 2 of 2). Bulletin of the World Health Organization, 78(7), 895.
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