Prevention & Control
Steps can be taken to reduce the risk for babesiosis and other tickborne infections. The use of prevention measures is especially important for people at increased risk for severe babesiosis (for example, people who do not have a spleen). Avoiding exposure to tick habitats is the best defense.
Babesia microti is spread by Ixodes scapularis ticks, which are most apt to be found in wooded, brushy, or grassy areas, in certain regions and seasons. No vaccine is available to protect people against babesiosis. However, people who live, work, or travel in tick-infested areas can take simple steps to help protect themselves against tick bites and tickborne infections.
During outdoor activities in tick habitats, take precautions to keep ticks off the skin.
- Walk on cleared trails and stay in the center of the trail, to minimize contact with leaf litter, brush, and overgrown grasses, where ticks are most apt to be found.
- Minimize the amount of exposed skin, by wearing socks, long pants, and a long-sleeved shirt. Tuck the pant legs into the socks, so ticks cannot crawl up the inside of the pants. Wear light-colored clothing, to make it easier to see and remove ticks before they attach to skin.
- Apply repellents to skin and clothing. Follow the instructions on the product label.
- Products that contain DEET (N,N-diethylmetatoluamide) can be directly applied to exposed skin and to clothing, to help keep ticks away (by repelling them). The product label includes details about how and where to apply the repellent, how often to reapply it, and how to use it safely on children.
- Permethrin products can be applied to clothing/boots (not to skin), actually kill ticks that come in contact with the treated clothing, and usually stay effective through several washings.
After the outdoor activities, conduct daily tick checks and promptly remove any ticks that are found. Thorough, daily tick checks are very important. The I. scapularis nymphs that typically spread B. microti are so small (about the size of a poppy seed) that they are easily overlooked. But they usually must stay attached to a person for more than 36-48 hours to be able to transmit the parasite.
- Remove ticks from clothing and pets before going indoors.
- Conduct a full-body exam for ticks. Use a hand-held or full-length mirror to view all parts of the body. Be sure to check behind the knees, between the legs (groin/thighs), between the toes, under the arms (armpits), around the waist, inside the belly button, the back of the neck, behind and in the ears, as well as in and around the scalp, hairline, and hair. Remember to check children and pets, too.
Remove ticks that are attached to the skin as soon as possible, preferably by using pointed (fine-tipped) tweezers. Grab the tick’s mouth parts close to the skin, and slowly pull the tick straight out (with steady outward pressure), until the tick lets go.
MMWR (July 13, 2012) -- Babesiosis Surveillance — 18 States, 2011
Article (Ann Intern Med -- September 5, 2011): Transfusion-Associated Babesiosis in the United States: A Description of Cases
Video (Ann Intern Med -- October 17, 2011): Author Insight: Barbara L. Herwaldt, MD, MPH, offers additional insight into her original research article.
- Centers for Disease Control and Prevention
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