Recommendations for Protecting Workers
CDC: Occupational Health Guidelines for Remediation Workers at Anthrax Contaminated Sites
Kournikakis B et al. . Anthrax letters in an open office environment: effects of selected CDC response guidelines on personal exposure and building contamination. J Occup Environ Hyg 8(2):113–122. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21253984
NIOSH Fact Sheet: Protecting Workers from Anthrax Infection
California Department of Food and Agriculture – Anthrax: What Livestock Producers Should Know
CDC: Anthrax Q&A – Anthrax & Animal Hides
Personal Protective Equipment
NIOSH: Recommendations for the Selection and Use of Respirators and Protective Clothing for Protection Against Biological Agents
NIOSH: Protecting Investigators Performing Environmental Sampling for Bacillus anthracis - Personal Protective Equipment
Other Protective Measures
CDC Use of Anthrax Vaccine in the United States: Recommendations of the Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices
CDC Anthrax Exposure Management/Prophylaxis
Guidelines for Safe Work Practices in Human and Animal Medical Diagnostic Laboratories: Recommendations of a CDC-convened, Biosafety Blue Ribbon Panel . MMWR 61(Supplement).
CDC BioSafety in Microbiological and Biomedical Laboratories (5th edition, 2009).
NIOSH Emergency Response Resources: Surface sampling procedures for Bacillus anthracis spores from smooth, non-porous surfaces
NIOSH Comprehensive Procedures for Collecting Environmental Samples for Culturing Bacillus anthracis
NIOSH Health Hazard Evaluation Report: NIOSH Evaluation of Air Sampling Methodologies for Bacillus anthracis in a United States Postal Service Processing and Distribution Center
Estill CF et al. . Recovery efficiency and limit of detection of aerosolized Bacillus anthracis Sterne from environmental surface samples. Appl Environ Microbiol 75(13):4297–4306.
Past Responses and Investigations
Doganay M et al. . A review of cutaneous anthrax and its outcome. J Infect Public Health 3(3):98–105.
Guh A et al. . Lessons learned from the investigation of a cluster of cutaneous anthrax cases in Connecticut. J Public Health Manag Pract 16(3):201–210.
Khoddami M et al. . Two rare presentations of fatal anthrax: meningeal and intestinal. Arch Iran Med 13(5):432–435.
Mayo L et al. . Gastrointestinal Anthrax after an Animal Hide Drumming Event - New Hampshire and Massachusetts, 2009. MMWR 59(28);872-877.
Nguyen TQ et al. . Public health and environmental response to the first case of naturally acquired inhalational anthrax in the United States in 30 years: infection of a New York City resident who worked with dried animal hides. J Public Health Manag Pract 16(3):189–200.
Cinquetti G et al. . Three related cases of cutaneous anthrax in France: clinical and laboratory aspects. Medicine (Baltimore) 88(6):371–375.
Stratidis J et al. . Cutaneous anthrax associated with drum making using goat hides from West Africa - Connecticut, 2007. MMWR 57(23):628–631.
Walsh J et al. . Inhalation anthrax associated with dried animal hides - Pennsylvania and New York City, 2006. JAMA 295(17):1991–1993.
Sanderson WT et al. . Bacillus anthracis contamination and inhalational anthrax in a mail processing and distribution center. J Appl Microbiol 96(5):1048–1056.
Berry K et al. . Follow-up of deaths among U.S. Postal Service workers potentially exposed to Bacillus anthracis—District of Columbia, 2001-2002. MMWR 52(39):937-8.
NIOSH Health Hazard Evaluation Report, HETA 2001-0316-2865, Independent Leather, US EPA Superfund Site, Gloversville, New York
NIOSH Health Hazard Evaluation Report, HETA 93-1121-2530, The State of North Dakota Department of Health and Consolidated Laboratories, Bismarck, North Dakota
CDC Emergency Preparedness & Response - Anthrax
CDC Division of Select Agents and Toxins (DSAT), Regulation of Select Agents and Toxins
CDC Division of Bacterial & Mycotic Diseases - Anthrax
CDC Responding to the Detection of Aerosolized Bacillus anthracis by Autonomous Detection Systems in the Workplace
FBI-DHS-HHS/CDC Guidance on Initial Response to a Suspicious Letter/Container with a Potential Biological Threat
OSHA Anthrax eTool
U.S. National Response Team: Quick Reference Guide: Anthrax
World Health Organization (WHO): Guidelines for the Surveillance and Control of Anthrax in Humans and Animals
International Labour Organization: International Hazard Datasheets on Occupation - Tanner