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Drums in an event room of a community organization building before a meal and drumming circle event.


Recommendations for Protecting Workers

CDC: Occupational Health Guidelines for Remediation Workers at Anthrax Contaminated Sites

Kournikakis B et al. [2011]. Anthrax letters in an open office environment: effects of selected CDC response guidelines on personal exposure and building contamination. J Occup Environ Hyg 8(2):113–122.

NIOSH Fact Sheet: Protecting Workers from Anthrax Infection

California Department of Food and Agriculture – Anthrax: What Livestock Producers Should Know

CDC: Anthrax Q&A – Anthrax & Animal Hides

Personal Protective Equipment

NIOSH: Recommendations for the Selection and Use of Respirators and Protective Clothing for Protection Against Biological Agents

NIOSH: Protecting Investigators Performing Environmental Sampling for Bacillus anthracis - Personal Protective Equipment

Other Protective Measures

CDC Use of Anthrax Vaccine in the United States: Recommendations of the Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices

CDC Anthrax Exposure Management/Prophylaxis

Laboratory Biosafety

Guidelines for Safe Work Practices in Human and Animal Medical Diagnostic Laboratories: Recommendations of a CDC-convened, Biosafety Blue Ribbon Panel [2012]. MMWR 61(Supplement).

CDC BioSafety in Microbiological and Biomedical Laboratories (5th edition, 2009).

Environmental Sampling

NIOSH Emergency Response Resources: Surface sampling procedures for Bacillus anthracis spores from smooth, non-porous surfaces

NIOSH Comprehensive Procedures for Collecting Environmental Samples for Culturing Bacillus anthracis

NIOSH Health Hazard Evaluation Report: NIOSH Evaluation of Air Sampling Methodologies for Bacillus anthracis in a United States Postal Service Processing and Distribution Center

Estill CF et al. [2009]. Recovery efficiency and limit of detection of aerosolized Bacillus anthracis Sterne from environmental surface samples. Appl Environ Microbiol 75(13):4297–4306.

Past Responses and Investigations

Doganay M et al. [2010]. A review of cutaneous anthrax and its outcome. J Infect Public Health 3(3):98–105.

Guh A et al. [2010]. Lessons learned from the investigation of a cluster of cutaneous anthrax cases in Connecticut. J Public Health Manag Pract 16(3):201–210.

Khoddami M et al. [2010]. Two rare presentations of fatal anthrax: meningeal and intestinal. Arch Iran Med 13(5):432–435.

Mayo L et al. [2010]. Gastrointestinal Anthrax after an Animal Hide Drumming Event - New Hampshire and Massachusetts, 2009. MMWR 59(28);872-877.

Nguyen TQ et al. [2010]. Public health and environmental response to the first case of naturally acquired inhalational anthrax in the United States in 30 years: infection of a New York City resident who worked with dried animal hides. J Public Health Manag Pract 16(3):189–200.

Cinquetti G et al. [2009]. Three related cases of cutaneous anthrax in France: clinical and laboratory aspects. Medicine (Baltimore) 88(6):371–375.

Stratidis J et al. [2008]. Cutaneous anthrax associated with drum making using goat hides from West Africa - Connecticut, 2007. MMWR 57(23):628–631.

Walsh J et al. [2006]. Inhalation anthrax associated with dried animal hides - Pennsylvania and New York City, 2006. JAMA 295(17):1991–1993.

Sanderson WT et al. [2004]. Bacillus anthracis contamination and inhalational anthrax in a mail processing and distribution center. J Appl Microbiol 96(5):1048–1056.

Berry K et al. [2003]. Follow-up of deaths among U.S. Postal Service workers potentially exposed to Bacillus anthracis—District of Columbia, 2001-2002. MMWR 52(39):937-8.

NIOSH Health Hazard Evaluation Report, HETA 2001-0316-2865, Independent Leather, US EPA Superfund Site, Gloversville, New York

NIOSH Health Hazard Evaluation Report, HETA 93-1121-2530, The State of North Dakota Department of Health and Consolidated Laboratories, Bismarck, North Dakota

Other Resources

CDC Emergency Preparedness & Response - Anthrax

CDC Division of Select Agents and Toxins (DSAT), Regulation of Select Agents and Toxins

CDC Division of Bacterial & Mycotic Diseases - Anthrax

CDC Responding to the Detection of Aerosolized Bacillus anthracis by Autonomous Detection Systems in the Workplace

FBI-DHS-HHS/CDC Guidance on Initial Response to a Suspicious Letter/Container with a Potential Biological Threat

OSHA Anthrax eTool

U.S. National Response Team: Quick Reference Guide: Anthrax

World Health Organization (WHO): Guidelines for the Surveillance and Control of Anthrax in Humans and Animals

International Labour Organization: International Hazard Datasheets on Occupation - Tanner

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  • Page last reviewed: February 3, 2012
  • Page last updated: March 20, 2012 The U.S. Government's Official Web PortalDepartment of Health and Human Services
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