The Upper Midwest Health Study: A case-control study of primary intracranial glioma in rural residents
Brain cancer is nearly uniformly fatal but the etiology of this disease remains largely unknown. Incidence and mortality rose significantly from the mid-70s through the 80s and then declined somewhat. However, among the elderly, rates increased most rapidly and did not then decline (SEER Cancer Fact Sheets, Cancer of the Brain and Other Nervous System 2007.)
Farmers are generally at lower risk for cancer overall. However, farmers have consistently been found to be at increased risk for brain cancer; the reason for the observed increase is unclear.
In 1991 the National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health received a Congressional mandate to study occupational health and safety in the agricultural sector. A group in the Division of Surveillance, Hazard Evaluations and Field Studies focused on cancer in farmers and decided to investigate possible explanations for the excess of brain cancer in farmers. Because brain cancer incidence was elevated in the Upper Midwest, and because these states have substantial farm populations, the study concentrated on Iowa, Michigan, Minnesota, and Wisconsin. Collaborators in each state were recruited for field work. A protocol was approved in 1994 and contracts with the collaborators began that year.
To evaluate whether farm exposures explain increased risk of brain cancer among farmers.
To ascertain whether evaluated nonfarm occupational exposures are associated with increased risk of brain cancer among participants in our case-control study.
To identify genetic susceptibility factors associated with increased risk of brain cancer in participants in our case-control study.
Personal history of diabetes, genetic susceptibility to diabetes, and risk of brain glioma: a pooled analysis of observational studies.
Kitahara CM, Linet M, Brenner AV, Wang SS, Melin B, Wang Z, et al. .
Cancer Epidemiol Biomark Prev 2013 Nov; [Epub ahead of print].
Known glioma risk loci are associated with glioma with a family history of brain tumours--a case-control gene association study.
Melin B, Dahlin AM, Andersson U, Wang Z, Henriksson R, Hallmans G, et al. 2013.
Int J Cancer 2013; 132(10):2464-2468.
The Upper Midwest Health Study: Gliomas and occupational exposure to chlorinated solvents.
Ruder AM, Yiin J, Hein MJ, Waters MA, Carreon T, Butler MA, et al.
Occup Environ Med 2013; 70: 73-80
Joint effects between 5 identified risk variants, allergy and auto-immune conditions in glioma risk.
Safaeian M, Rajaraman P, Hartge P, Yeager M, Butler MA, Ruder AM, Purdue MP, Hsing A, Beane-Freeman L, Hoppin JA et al. 2013.
Cancer Cause Control DOI 10.1007/s10552-013-0244-7
A subset-based approach improves power and interpretation for the combined analysis of genetic association studies of heterogeneous traits.
Bhattacharjee S, Rajaraman P, Jacobs KB, Wheeler WA, Melin BS, Hartge P, et al. 2012.
Am J Hum Genet 90(5):821-35.
Detectable clonal mosaicism and its relationship to aging and cancer.
Jacobs KB, Yeager M, Zhou W, Wacholder S, Wang Z, Rodriguez Santiago B, et al.
Nat Genet 2012 Jun; 44(6):651-658
Association between adult height, genetic susceptibility and risk of glioma.
Kitahara CM, Wang SS, Melin BS, Wang Z, Braganza M, Inskip PD et al.
Int J Epidemiol 2012 Aug; 41(4):1075-1085
Genome-wide association study of glioma and meta-analysis.
Rajaraman P, Melin BS, Wang Z, McKean-Cowdin R, Michaud DS, Wang SS, et al.
Hum Genet 2012 Dec; 131(12):1877-1888
The Upper Midwest Health Study: industry and occupation of glioma cases and controls.
Ruder AM, Waters MA, Carreon T, Butler MA, Calvert GM, Davis-King KE, et al. 2012.
Am J Ind Med: 55(9):747-55. DOI: 10.1002/ajim.22085.
The Upper Midwest Health Study: a case-control study of pesticide applicators and risk of glioma.
Yiin JH, Ruder AM, Stewart PA, Waters MA, Carreón T, Butler MA, et al.
Environ Health Glob Access Sci Source 2012 Jun; 11(1):39
Joint effects between genetic variants and reproductive factors in glioma risk among women.
Wang SS, Hartge P, Yeager M, Carreón T, Ruder AM, Linet M, et al. 2011.
Am J Epidemiol 2011; 174 (8):901-908
Statistical modeling of occupational chlorinated solvent exposures for case-control studies using a literature-based database.
Hein MJ, Waters MA, Ruder AM, Stenzel MR, Blair A, Stewart PA.
Ann Occup Hyg 2010; 54(4): 459-72.
Genetic epidemiology of glioblastoma multiforme: confirmatory and new findings from analyses of human leukocyte antigen alleles and motifs.
Song WS, Ruder A, Hu L, Li Y, Ni R, Shao W, Kaslow RA, Butler MA, Tang J.
PloS One 2009; 4 (9), e7157.
The Upper Midwest Health Study: Gliomas and farm crops, livestock, and tasks.
Ruder AM, Carreón T, Butler MA, Calvert GM, Davis-King KE, Waters MA, et al.
Am J Epidemiol; 2009; 169 (12): 1479-1491.
Common variation in genes related to innate immunity and risk of adult glioma.
Rajaraman P, Brenner A, Butler M, Wang S, Pfeiffer R, Ruder A, et al.
Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev. 2009 18 (5): 1651-1658.
NIOSH Retrospective Pesticide Reference Database.
Ruder AM, Butler MA, Sanderson WT, Carreón T, Waters MA, Zivkovich ZE.
Journal of Agricultural Safety and Health. 15(2): 143-156. 2009.
Associations between polymorphisms in DNA repair genes and glioblastoma.
McKean-Cowdin R, Barnholtz-Sloan J, Inskip PD, Ruder AM, Butler M, Rajaraman P, et al.
Cancer Epidemiology, Biomarkers and Prevention 2009 April; 18(4): 1118-1126.
Issues when modeling benzene, toluene, and xylene exposures using a literature database.
Hein MJ, Waters MA, van Wijngaarden E, Deddens JA, Stewart PA.
Journal of Occupational and Environmental Hygiene 2008 Jan; 5(1)36-47.
Single-nucleotide polymorphisms in selected cytokine genes and risk of adult glioma.
Brenner AV, Butler MA, Wang SS, Ruder AM, Rothman N, Schulte PA, et al.
Carcinogenesis 2007 Oct; 28(10):2543-2547.
The Upper Midwest Health Study: a case-control study of primary intracranial gliomas in farm and rural residents.
Ruder AM, Waters MA, Carreón T, Butler MA, Davis-King KE, Calvert GM, et al.
Journal of Agriculture Safety and Health 2006; 12: 255-274.
Gliomas and farm pesticide exposure in women: the Upper Midwest Health Study.
Carreón T, Butler MA, Ruder AM, Waters MA, Davis-King KE, Calvert GM, et al.
Environmental Health Perspectives 2005; 113 (5): 546-551.
Gliomas and farm pesticide exposure in men: the Upper Midwest Health Study.
Ruder AM, Waters MA, Butler MA, Carreón T, Calvert GM, Davis-King KE, et al.
Archives of Environmental Health 2004; 59: 650-657.
Reproductive factors and risk of glioma in women.
Huang K, Whelan EA, Ruder AM, Deddens J, Davis-King KE, Carreón T, et al.
Cancer Epidemiology Biomarkers and Prevention 2004; 13: 1583-1588.
Pesticide prioritization for a brain cancer case-control study.
Sanderson WT, Talaska G, Zaebst D, Davis-King K, Calvert G.
Environmental Research 1997; 74: 133-44.
Those interested in more details of Upper Midwest Health Study publications and investigators interested in collaborations with NIOSH utilizing Upper Midwest Health Study data should contact the project officer:
Avima Ruder, Ph.D.
National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health
1150 Tusculum Ave.
Cincinnati, OH 45226 USA
(513) 841-4440 (voice)
(513) 841-4486 (fax)
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