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Appendix E - OSHA Respirator Requirements for Selected Chemicals

Revisions to the OSHA Respiratory Protection Standard (29 CFR 1910.134) became effective on April 8, 1998.  Incorporated within the preamble of this ruling were changes to OSHA regulations for several chemicals or substances, which are listed as subheadings in blue text throughout this appendix.  These subheadings, which are also the titles of the affected standards within 29 CFR 1910 and 29 CFR 1926, are followed by the standard number(s) in parentheses and the OSHA respirator requirements.  Fit testing is required by OSHA for all tight-fitting air-purifying respirators.   Please consult 29 CFR 1910.134 for the full content of the changes that apply.  For all of the chemicals listed in this appendix, any respirators that are  permitted at higher environmental concentrations can be used at lower concentrations.

13 Carcinogens (4-Nitrobiphenyl, etc.) (1910.1003)

Employees engaged in handling operations involving the carcinogens listed below must be provided with, and required to wear and use, a half-mask filter-type respirator for dusts, mists, and fumes.  A respirator affording higher levels of protection than this respirator may be substituted.

2-Acetylaminofluorene

4-Dimethylaminoazobenezene

beta-Naphthylamine

4-Aminodiphenyl

Ethyleneimine

4-Nitrobiphenyl

Benzidine

Methyl chloromethyl ether

N-Nitrosodimethylamine

bis-Chloromethyl ether

alpha-Naphthylamine

beta-Propiolactone

3,3'-Dichlorobenzidine (and its salts)

 

 

Acrylonitrile (1910.1045)

Airborne Concentration or Condition of Use

Respirator Type

< or =  20 ppm (parts per million)

(1) Chemical cartridge respirator with organic vapor cartridge(s) and half-mask facepiece; or (2) Supplied-air respirator with half-mask facepiece.

< or =  100 ppm or maximum use concentration of

cartridges or canisters, whichever is lower

(1) Full-facepiece respirator with (A) organic vapor cartridges,

(B) organic vapor gas mask, chin-style, or (C) organic vapor gas mask canister, front- or back-mounted; (2) Supplied-air respirator with full facepiece; or (3) Self-contained breathing apparatus with full facepiece.

< or =  4,000 ppm

Supplied-air respirator operated in positive-pressure mode with full facepiece, helmet, suit, or hood.

> 4,000 ppm or unknown concentration

(1) Supplied-air and auxiliary self-contained breathing apparatus with full facepiece in positive-pressure mode; or (2) Self-contained breathing apparatus with full facepiece in positive-pressure mode.

Firefighting

Self-contained breathing apparatus with full facepiece in positive-pressure mode.

Escape

(1) Any organic vapor respirator; or

(2) Any self-contained breathing apparatus.

 

Arsenic, inorganic (1910.1018)

Requirements for Respiratory Protection for Inorganic Arsenic Particulate

Except for Those With Significant Vapor Pressure

Airborne Concentration (as As) or Condition of Use

Required Respirator

< or =  100 µg/m3 (micrograms

per cubic meter)

(1) Half-mask air-purifying respirator equipped with high-efficiency filter*; or (2) Any half-mask supplied air respirator.

< or =  500 µg/m3

(1) Full facepiece air-purifying respirator equipped with high-efficiency filter*; (2) Any full-facepiece supplied-air respirator; or

(3) Any full-facepiece self-contained breathing apparatus.

< or =  10,000 µg/m3

(1) Powered air-purifying respirators in all inlet face coverings with high-efficiency filters*; or (2) Half-mask supplied-air respirators operated in positive-pressure mode.

< or =  20,000 µg/m3

Supplied-air respirator with full facepiece, hood, or helmet or suit, operated in positive-pressure mode.

> 20,000 µg/m3, unknown concentrations, or firefighting

Any full-facepiece self-contained breathing apparatus operated in positive-pressure mode.

* A high-efficiency filter means a filter that is at least 99.97% efficient against mono-disperesed particles of 0.3 µm (micrometers) in diameter or higher.

Requirements for Respiratory Protection for Inorganic Arsenicals With Significant Vapor Pressure

Airborne Concentration (as As) or Condition of Use

Required Respirator

< or =  100 µg/m3 (micrograms

per cubic meter)

(1) Half-mask* air-purifying respirator equipped with high-efficiency filter** and acid gas cartridge; or (2) Any half-mask* supplied-air respirator.

< or =  500 µg/m3

(1) Front- or back-mounted gas mask equipped with high-efficiency filter** and acid gas canister; (2) Any full-facepiece supplied-air respirator; or (3) Any full-facepiece self-contained breathing apparatus.

< or =  10,000 µg/m3

Half-mask* supplied-air respirator operated in positive-pressure mode.

< or =  20,000 µg/m3

Supplied-air respirator with full facepiece, hood, or helmet or suit, operated in positive-pressure mode.

> 20,000 µg/m3, unknown concentrations, or firefighting

Any full-facepiece self-contained breathing apparatus operated in positive-pressure mode.

* Half-mask respirators shall not be used for protection against arsenic trichloride, as it is rapidly absorbed through the skin.

** A high-efficiency filter means a filter that is at least 99.97% efficient against mono-disperesed particles of 0.3 µm (micrometers) in diameter or higher.

 
Asbestos (1910.1001 & 1926.1101)

Airborne Concentration or Condition of Use

Required Respirator

< or =  1 f/cm3 (fibers per cubic centimeter) (10 X PEL)

Half-mask air-purifying respirator other than a disposable respirator, equipped with high-efficiency filters*.

< or =  5 f/cm3 (50 X PEL)

Full-facepiece air-purifying respirator equipped with high-efficiency filters*.

< or =  10 f/cm3 (100 X PEL)

Any powered air-purifying respirator equipped with high-efficiency filters* or any supplied-air respirator operated in continuous-flow mode.

< or =  100 f/cm3 (1,000 X PEL)

Full-facepiece supplied air respirator operated in pressure-demand mode.

> 100 f/cm3 (1,000 X PEL),

or unknown concentrations

Full-facepiece supplied-air respirator operated in pressure-demand mode, equipped with an auxiliary positive-pressure self-contained breathing apparatus.

* A high-efficiency filter means a filter that is at least 99.97% efficient against mono-dispersed particles of 0.3 µm (micrometers) in diameter or higher.

 

Benzene (1910.1028)

Airborne Concentration or Condition of Use

Required Respirator

< or =  10 ppm (parts per million)

Half-mask air-purifying respirator with organic vapor cartridge.

< or =  50 ppm

(1) Full-facepiece respirator with organic vapor cartridges; or

(2) Full-facepiece gas mask with chin-style canisters*.

< or =  100 ppm

Full-facepiece powered air-purifying respirator with organic vapor canister*.

< or =  1,000 ppm

Supplied-air respirator with full facepiece in positive-pressure mode.

> 1,000 ppm or

unknown concentration

(1) Self-contained breathing apparatus with full facepiece in positive-pressure mode; or (2) Full-facepiece positive-pressure supplied-air respirator with auxiliary self-contained air supply.

Escape

(1) Any organic vapor gas mask; or (2) Any self-contained breathing apparatus with full facepiece.

Firefighting

Full-facepiece self-contained breathing apparatus in positive-pressure mode.

* Canisters must have a minimum service life of four (4) hours when tested at 150 ppm benzene, at a flow rate of 64 liters per minute (LPM), 25°C, and 85% relative humidity for non-powered air-purifying respirators.  The flow rate shall be 115 LPM and 170 LPM, respectively, for tight-fitting and loose-fitting powered air-purifying respirators.

 

 1,3-Butadiene (1910.1051)

Airborne Concentration or Condition of Use

Required Respirator

< or =  5 ppm (parts per million)

Air-purifying half-mask or full-facepiece respirator equipped with approved butadiene or organic vapor cartridges or canisters.  Cartridges or canisters shall be replaced every 4 hours.

< or =  10 ppm

Air-purifying half-mask or full-facepiece respirator equipped with approved butadiene or organic vapor cartridges or canisters.  Cartridges or canisters shall be replaced every 3 hours.

< or =  25 ppm

(1) Air-purifying half-mask or full-facepiece respirator equipped with approved butadiene or organic vapor cartridges or canisters.  Cartridges or canisters shall be replaced every 2 hours;

(2) Any powered air-purifying respirator equipped with approved butadiene or organic vapor cartridges or canisters.  Cartridges or canisters shall be replaced every [1] hour; or (3) Continuous-flow supplied-air respirator equipped with a hood or helmet.

< or =  50 ppm

(1) Air-purifying full-facepiece respirator equipped with approved butadiene or organic vapor cartridges or canisters.  Cartridges or canisters shall be replaced every [1] hour; or (2) Powered air-purifying respirator (PAPR) equipped with a tight-fitting facepiece and approved butadiene or organic vapor cartridges.  PAPR cartridges shall be replaced every [1] hour.

< or =  1,000 ppm

Supplied-air respirator equipped with a half-mask or full facepiece and operated in a pressure-demand or other positive-pressure mode.

> 1,000 ppm, unknown concentration, or firefighting

(1) Self-contained breathing apparatus equipped with a full facepiece and operated in a pressure-demand or other positive-pressure mode; or (2) Any supplied-air respirator equipped with a full facepiece and operated in a pressure-demand or other positive-pressure mode in combination with an auxiliary self-contained breathing apparatus operated in a pressure-demand or other positive-pressure mode.

Escape from IDLH conditions

(IDLH is 2,000 ppm)

(1) Any positive-pressure self-contained breathing apparatus with an appropriate service life; or (2) Any air-purifying full-facepiece respirator equipped with a front- or back-mounted butadiene or organic vapor canister.

 

 Cadmium (1910.1027 & 1926.1127)

Airborne Concentration or Condition of Use Required Respirator

< or =  50 µg/m3 (micrograms

per cubic meter)

Half-mask, air-purifying respirator equipped with a high-efficiency filter*.

< or =  125 µg/m3

(1) Powered air-purifying respirator with a loose-fiting hood or helmet equipped with a high-efficiency filter*; or (2) Supplied-air respirator with a loose-fitting hood or helmet facepiece operated in continuous-flow mode.

< or =  250 µg/m3

(1) Full-facepiece air-purifying respirator equipped with a high-efficiency filter*; (2) Powered air-purifying respirator with a tight-fitting half-mask equipped with a high-efficiency filter*; or (3) Supplied-air respirator with a tight-fitting half-mask operated in continuous-flow mode.

< or =  1,250 µg/m3

(1) Powered air-purifying respirator with a tight-fitting full facepiece equipped with a high-efficiency filter*; or (2) Supplied-air respirator with a tight-fitting full facepiece operated in continuous-flow mode.

< or =  5,000 µg/m3

Supplied-air respirator with half-mask or full facepiece operated in pressure-demand or other positive-pressure mode.

> 5,000 µg/m3 or

unknown concentration

(1) Self-contained breathing apparatus with a full facepiece operated in pressure-demand or other positive-pressure mode; or (2) Supplied-air respirator with a full facepiece operated in pressure-demand or other positive-pressure mode and equipped with an auxiliary escape-type self-contained breathing apparatus operated in pressure-demand mode.

Firefighting

Self-contained breathing apparatus with full facepiece operated in pressure-demand or other positive-pressure mode.

Note: Quantitative fit testing is required for all tight-fitting air-purifying respirators where airborne concentration of cadmium exceeds 10 times the TWA PEL (10 X 5 µg/m3 = 50 µg/m3).  A full-facepiece respirator is required when eye irritation is expected.  

* A high-efficiency filter means a filter that is at least 99.97% efficient against mono-dispersed particles of 0.3 µm (micrometers) in diameter or higher.

 

 Coke oven emissions (1910.1029)

Airborne Concentration

Required Respirator

< or =  1500 µg/m3 (micrograms per cubic meter)

(1) Any particulate filter respirator for dust and mist except single-use respirator; or (2) Any particulate filter respirator or combination chemical cartridge and particulate filter respirator for coke oven emissions.

Any concentrations

(1) Type C supplied-air respirator operated in pressure-demand or continuous-flow mode; (2) Powered air-purifying particulate filter respirator for dust and mist; or (3) Powered air-purifying particulate filter respirator or combination chemical cartridge and particulate filter respirator for coke oven emissions.

 

Cotton dust (1910.1043)

Airborne Concentration

Required Respirator

< or =  5 X PEL

Disposable respirator* with a particulate filter.

< or =  10 X PEL

Quarter- or half-mask respirator, other than a disposable respirator, equipped with particulate filters.

< or =  100 X PEL

Full-facepiece respirator equipped with high-efficiency particulate filters**.

> 100 X PEL

Powered air-purifying respirator equipped with high-efficiency particulate filters.

* A disposable respirator means the filter element is an inseparable part of the respirator. ** A high-efficiency filter means a filter that is at least 99.97% efficient against mono-dispersed particles of 0.3 µm (micrometers) in diameter or higher.

Notes: Self-contained breathing apparatus are not required but are permitted respirators.

Supplied-air respirators are not required but are permitted under the following conditions: 

Cotton dust concentration not greater than 10X the PEL: Any supplied air respirator;  not greater than 100X the PEL: Any supplied-air respirator with full facepiece, helmet, or hood; greater than 100X the PEL: Supplied-air respirator operated in positive-pressure mode.

 

1,2-Dibromo-3-chloropropane (1910.1044)

Airborne Concentration

or Condition of Use

Required Respirator

< or =  10 ppb (parts per billion)

(1) Any supplied-air respirator; or (2) any self-contained breathing apparatus.

< or =  50 ppb

(1) Any supplied-air respirator with full facepiece, helmet, or hood; or (2) any self-contained breathing apparatus with full facepiece.

< or =  1,000 ppb

Type C supplied-air respirator operated in pressure-demand or other positive-pressure or continuous-flow mode.

< or =  2,000 ppb

Type C supplied-air respirator with full facepiece operated in pressure-demand or other positive-pressure mode, or with full facepiece, helmet, or hood operated in continuous-flow mode.

> 2,000 ppb or entry and escape from unknown concentrations

(1) A combination respirator which includes a Type C supplied-air respirator with full facepiece operated in pressure-demand or other positive pressure or continuous-flow mode and an auxiliary self-contained breathing apparatus operated in pressure-demand or positive-pressure mode; or (2) Self-contained breathing apparatus with full facepiece operated in pressure-demand or other positive-pressure mode.

Firefighting

Self-contained breathing apparatus with full facepiece operated in pressure-demand or other positive-pressure mode.


 Ethylene oxide (1910.1047)

Airborne Concentration or Condition of Use Required Respirator

< or =  50 ppm (parts per million)

Full-facepiece respirator with ethylene oxide approved canister, front- or back-mounted.

< or =  2,000 ppm

(1) Positive-pressure supplied-air respirator equipped with full facepiece, hood, or helmet; or (2) Continuous-flow supplied-air respirator (positive-pressure) equipped with hood, helmet, or suit.

> 2,000 ppm or

unknown concentrations

(1) Positive-pressure self-contained breathing apparatus equipped with full facepiece; or (2) Positive-pressure full-facepiece supplied-air respirator equipped with an auxiliary positive-pressure self-contained breathing apparatus.

Firefighting

Positive-pressure self-contained breathing apparatus equipped with full facepiece.

Escape

Any respirator described above.

 

Formaldehyde (1910.1048)

Airborne Concentration or Condition of Use Required Respirator

< or =  7.5 ppm (parts per million) (10 X PEL)

Full-facepiece respirator with cartridges or canisters specifically approved for protection against formaldehyde*.

< or =  75 ppm (100 X PEL)

(1) Full-face mask respirator with chin style or chest- or back-mounted type with industrial size canister specifically approved for protection against formaldehyde; or (2) Type C supplied-air respirator, demand type or continuous flow type, with full facepiece, hood, or helmet.

> 75 ppm (100 X PEL) or unknown concentrations (emergencies)

(1) Self-contained breathing apparatus with positive-pressure full-facepiece; or (2) Combination supplied-air, full-facepiece positive-pressure respirator with auxiliary self-contained air supply.

Firefighting

Self-contained breathing apparatus with positive-pressure in full facepiece.

Escape

(1) Self-contained breathing apparatus in demand or pressure-demand mode; or (2) Full-face mask respirator with chin-style or front- or back-mounted type industrial size canister specifically approved for protection against formaldehyde.

* A half-mask respirator with cartridges specifically approved for protection against formaldehyde can be substituted for the full-facepiece respirator providing that effective gas-proof goggles are provided and used in combination with the half-mask respirator.

 

 Lead (1910.1025 & 1926.62)

Respirator Requirements of 1910.1025 (General Industry Lead Standard)

Airborne Concentration or Condition of Use

Required Respirator

< or =  0.5 mg/m3 (milligrams per cubic meter) (10 X PEL)

Half-mask* air-purifying respirator equipped with high-efficiency filters**.

< or =  2.5 mg/m3 (50 X PEL)

Full-facepiece air-purifying respirator with high-efficiency filters**.

< or =  50 mg/m3 (1000 X PEL)

(1) Any powered air-purifying respirator with high-efficiency filters**; or

(2) Half-mask* supplied-air respirator operated in positive-pressure mode.

< or =  100 mg/m3 (2000 X PEL)

Supplied-air respirators with full facepiece, hood, helmet, or suit, operated in positive-pressure mode.

> 100 mg/m3, unknown concentration, or firefighting

Full-facepiece, self-contained breathing apparatus operated in positive-pressure mode.

* Full facepiece is required if the lead aerosols cause eye or skin irritation at the use concentrations.

** A high-efficiency filter means a filter that is at least 99.97% efficient against mono-dispersed particles of 0.3 µm (micrometers) in diameter or higher.

Respirator Requirements of 1926.62 (Construction Lead Standard)

Airborne Concentration or Condition of Use

Required Respirator

< or =  0.5 mg/m3 (milligrams

per cubic meter)

(1) Half-mask* air-purifying respirator with high-efficiency filters**; or

(2) Half-mask* supplied-air respirator operated in demand (negative pressure) mode.

< or =  1.25 mg/m3

(1) Loose-fitting hood or helmet powered air-purifying respirator with high-efficiency filters**; or (2) Hood or helmet supplied-air respirator operated in a continuous-flow mode (e.g., Type CE abrasive blasting respirators operated in a continuous-flow mode).

< or =  2.5 mg/m3

(1) Full-facepiece air-purifying respirator with high-efficiency filters**;

(2) Tight-fitting powered air-purifying respirator with high-efficiency filters**; (3) Full-facepiece supplied-air respirator operated in demand mode; (4) Half-mask* or full-facepiece supplied-air respirator operated in a continuous-flow mode; or (5) Full-facepiece self-contained breathing apparatus operated in demand mode.

< or =  50 mg/m3

Half-mask* supplied-air respirator operated in pressure-demand or other positive-pressure mode.

< or =  100 mg/m3

Full-facepiece supplied-air respirator operated in pressure-demand or other positive-pressure mode (e.g., Type CE abrasive blasting respirators operated in a continuous-flow mode).

> 100 mg/m3, unknown concentration, or firefighting

Full-facepiece self-contained breathing apparatus in pressure-demand or other positive-pressure mode.

* Full facepiece is required if the lead aerosols cause eye or skin irritation at the use concentrations.  

** A high-efficiency filter means a filter that is at least 99.97% efficient against mono-dispersed particles of 0.3 µm (micrometers) in diameter or higher.

 

Methylene chloride (1910.1052)

Airborne Concentration or Condition of Use Required Respirator

< or =  625 ppm (parts

per million) (25 X PEL)

Continuous-flow supplied-air respirator, hood or helmet.

< or =  1250 ppm

(50 X PEL)

(1) Full-facepiece supplied-air respirator operated in negative-pressure (demand) mode; or (2) Full-facepiece self-contained breathing apparatus operated in negative-pressure (demand) mode.

< or =  5,000 ppm

(200 X PEL)

(1) Continuous-flow supplied-air respirator, full-facepiece; (2) Pressure-demand supplied-air respirator, full-facepiece; or (3) Positive-pressure full-facepiece self-contained breathing apparatus.

> 5,000 ppm or unknown concentration

(1) Positive-pressure full-facepiece self-contained breathing apparatus; or (2) Full-facepiece pressure-demand supplied-air respirator with an auxiliary self-contained air supply.

Firefighting

Positive-pressure full-facepiece self-contained breathing apparatus.

Emergency escape

(1) Any continuous-flow or pressure-demand self-contained breathing apparatus; or (2) Gas mask with organic vapor canister.

 

4,4'-Methylenedianiline (1910.1050 & 1926.60)

Airborne Concentration or Condition of Use Required Respirator

< or =  10 X PEL

Half-mask respirator with high-efficiency* cartridge**.

< or =  50 X PEL

Full-facepiece respirator with high-efficiency* cartridge or canister**.

< or =  1,000 X PEL

Full-facepiece powered air-purifying respirator with high-efficiency* cartridge**.

> 1,000 X PEL or

unknown concentration

(1) Self-contained breathing apparatus with full facepiece in positive-pressure mode; or (2) Full-facepiece positive-pressure demand supplied-air respirator with auxiliary self-contained air supply.

Escape

(1) Any full-facepiece air-purifying respirator with high-efficiency* cartridges**; or (2) Any positive-pressure or continuous-flow selaltf-contained breathing apparatus with full facepiece or hood.

Firefighting

Full-facepiece self-contained breathing apparatus in positive-pressure demand mode.

* A high-efficiency filter means a filter that is at least 99.97% efficient against mono-dispersed particles of 0.3 µm (micrometers) in diameter or higher.

** Combination High-Efficiency/Organic Vapor Cartridges shall be used whenever Methylenedianiline is in liquid form or a process requiring heat is used.

 

Vinyl Chloride (1910.1017)

Airborne Concentration or Condition of Use

Required Respirator

< or =  10 ppm (parts per million)

(1) Combination Type C supplied-air respirator, demand type, with half facepiece, and auxiliary self-contained air supply; (2) Type C supplied-air respirator, demand type, with half facepiece; or (3) Any chemical cartridge respirator with an organic vapor cartridge which provides a service life of at least 1 hour for concentrations of vinyl chloride up to 10 ppm.

< or =  25 ppm

(1) Powered air-purifying respirator with hood, helmet, full or half facepiece, and a canister which provides a service life of at least 4 hours for concentrations of vinyl chloride up to 25 ppm; or (2) Gas mask with front- or back-mounted canister which provides a service life of at least 4 hours for concentrations of vinyl chloride up to 25 ppm.

< or =  100 ppm

(1) Combination Type C supplied-air respirator, demand type, with full facepiece, and auxiliary self-contained air supply; or (2) Open-circuit self-contained breathing apparatus with full facepiece, in demand mode; or (3) Type C supplied-air respirator, demand type, with full facepiece.

< or =  1,000 ppm

Type C supplied-air respirator, continuous-flow type, with full or half facepiece, helmet, or hood.

< or =  3,600 ppm

(1) Combination Type C supplied-air respirator, pressure demand type, with full or half facepiece, and auxiliary self-contained air supply; or (2) Combination type continuous-flow supplied-air respirator with full or half facepiece and auxiliary self-contained air supply.

> 3,600 ppm or

unknown concentration

Open-circuit self-contained breathing apparatus, pressure-demand type, with full facepiece.

 
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