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Frequently Asked Questions (FAQs) regarding Safe Practices for Medical Injections

References

  1. Comstock RD et al. A Large Nosocomial Outbreak of Hepatitis C and Hepatitis B Among Patients Receiving Pain Remediation Treatments. ICHE 2004;25:576-583.
  2. Jain SK et al. Nosocomial Malaria and Saline Flush. EID 2005;11:1097-1099.
  3. Fischer GE et al. Hepatitis C Virus Infections from Unsafe Injection Practices at an Endoscopy Clinic in Las Vegas, Nevada, 2007-2008. CID 2010;51:267-273.
  4. Macedo de Oliveira A et al. An Outbreak of Hepatitis C Virus Infections among Outpatients at a Hematology/Oncology Clinic. AIM 2005;142:898-903.
  5. Moore ZS et al. Hepatitis C Virus Infections associated with Myocardial Infusion Studies, North Carolina, 2008. Poster presented at: Annual Scientific Meeting of the Society for Healthcare Epidemiology; March 21, 2009; San Diego, CA.
  6. Gutelius B et al. Multiple Clusters of Hepatitis Virus Infections Associated with Anesthesia for Outpatient Endoscopy Procedures. Gastroenterology 2010;139:163-170.
  7. Bennett SN et al. Post-operative Infections Traced to Contamination of an Intravenous Anesthetic, Propofol. NEJM 1995;333:147-154.
  8. Groshskopf LA et al. Serratia liquefaciens Bloodstream Infections from Contamination of Epoetin alfa at a Hemodialysis Center. NEJM 2001;344:1491-1497.
  9. Cohen AL et al. Outbreak of Serratia marcescens Bloodstream and Central Nervous System Infections after Interventional Pain Management Procedures. Clin J Pain 2008;24:374-380.
  10. Samandari T et al. A Large Outbreak of Hepatitis B Virus Infections Associated with Frequent Injections at a Physician’s Office. ICHE 2005;26:745-750.
  11. Archer WR et al. Methicillin-susceptible Staphylococcus aureus Infections after Intra-Articular Injections. Poster presented at: 47th Annual Meeting of Infectious Diseases Society of America; October 29-November 1, 2009; Philadelphia, PA.
  12. Thompson ND et al. Nonhospital Health Care-Associated Hepatitis B and C Virus Transmission: United States, 1998-2008. Ann Intern Med 2009;150:33-39.
  13. WHO best practices for injections and related procedures toolkit [PDF - 1.71 MB]. March 2010.
  14. Abe K et al. Outbreak of Burkholderia cepacia Bloodstream Infection at an Outpatient Hematology and Oncology Practice. ICHE 2007;28:1311-1313.
  15. Wahlberg, D (2010, August 6). Patient is called back to UW Hospital for tests after syringe incident. Wisconsin State Journal.
  16. United States Pharmacopeia (USP) 797: Guidebook to Pharmaceutical Compounding – Sterile Preparations. Second Edition, June 1, 2008.

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