Reported Cases of HPS
HPS in the United States
Through December 31, 2013, a total of 637 cases of Hantavirus Pulmonary Syndrome have been reported in the United States. Of these, 606 cases occurred from 1993-onward, following the initial identification of HPS, whereas 31 cases were retrospectively identified. Thirty-six percent of all reported cases have resulted in death.
Of persons ill with HPS, 63% have been male, 37% female.
The mean age of confirmed case patients is 37 years (range: 6 to 83 years).
HPS can strike anyone; however, Whites currently account for 78% of all cases. American Indians account for about 18% of cases, African Americans for 2% of cases, and Asians for 1% of cases. About 20% of HPS cases have been reported among Hispanics (ethnicity considered separately from race).
Cases have been reported in 34 states (see map). More than 95% of reported cases have occurred in states west of the Mississippi River.
About three-quarters of patients with HPS have been residents of rural areas.
HPS outside of the United States
Outside of North America, numerous individual cases and small clusters of HPS cases have been reported in Argentina, Bolivia, Brazil, Chile, Ecuador, Paraguay, Panama and Uruguay and Venezuela. Large outbreaks have been rare and have usually been associated with human disturbance and land-use changes or with unusual environmental events such as increased rainfall or periodic bamboo flowering.
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