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Antiviral Guide References

Guidance on the Use of Influenza Antiviral Agents

Updated References

(Current as of the 2013-14 Influenza Season)

Adisasmito W, Chan PK, Lee N, et al. Effectiveness of antiviral treatment in human influenza A(H5N1) infections: analysis of a Global Patient Registry. J Infect Dis. 2010 Oct 15; 202(8):1154-60. doi: 10.1086/656316.

American Academy of Pediatrics. Committee on Infectious Diseases. Policy Statement—Recommendations for Prevention and Control of Influenza in Children, 2010-2011.

American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists Committee on Obstetric Practice. ACOG Committee Opinion No. 468: Influenza vaccination during pregnancy. Obstet Gynecol. 2010; 116(4): 1006--7.

Booy R, Lindley RI, Dwyer DE, Yin JK, Heron LG, Moffatt CR, Chiu CK, Rosewell AE, Dean AS, Dobbins T, Philp DJ, Gao Z, Macintyre CR. Treating and preventing influenza in aged care facilities: a cluster randomised controlled trial. PLoS One. 2012;7(10):e46509.

CDC. Prevention and Control of Influenza with Vaccines: Recommendations of the Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices (ACIP) — United States, 2013-2014. MMWR. 2013; 62(RR-07): 1-43.

CDC. Immunization of health-care personnel: recommendations of the Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices (ACIP). MMWR. 2011; 60 (RR-7); 1-45.

CDC. Guidelines for preventing health-care--associated pneumonia, 2003: recommendations of CDC and the Healthcare Infection Control Practices Advisory Committee. MMWR. 2004; 53(RR-3): 1-36.

CDC. Prevention Strategies for Seasonal Influenza in Healthcare Settings.

Chan-Tack KM, Gao A, Himaya AC, et al. Clinical experience with intravenous zanamivir under an emergency investigational new drug program in the United States. J Infect Dis. 2013; 207(1): 196-8.

Chartrand C, Leeflang MM, Minion J, Brewer T, Pai M. Accuracy of rapid influenza diagnostic tests: a meta-analysis. Ann Intern Med. 2012 Apr 3;156(7):500-11.

Chen LF, Dailey NJ, Rao AK, Fleischauer AT, Greenwald I, Deyde VM, Moore ZS, Anderson DJ, Duffy J, Gubareva LV, Sexton DJ, Fry AM, Srinivasan A, Wolfe CR. Cluster of oseltamivir-resistant 2009 pandemic influenza A (H1N1) virus infections on a hospital ward among immunocompromised patients--North Carolina, 2009. J Infect Dis. 2011 Mar 15;203(6):838-46.

Chowell G, Viboud C, Simonsen L, et al. Impact of antiviral treatment and hospital admission delay on risk of death associated with 2009 A/H1N1 pandemic influenza in Mexico. BMC infectious diseases 2012; 12: 97.

Coffin SE, Leckerman K, Keren R, Hall M, Localio R, Zaoutis TE. Oseltamivir shortens hospital stays of critically ill children hospitalized with seasonal influenza: a retrospective cohort study. The Pediatric infectious disease journal 2011; 30(11): 962-6.

Committee on Infectious Diseases. Recommendations for prevention and control of influenza in children, 2013-2014. Pediatrics. 2013; 132(4): e1089-104.

Dulek DE, Williams JV, Creech CB, Schulert AK, Frangoul HA, Domm J, Denison MR, Chappell JD. Use of intravenous zanamivir after development of oseltamivir resistance in a critically Ill immunosuppressed child infected with 2009 pandemic influenza A (H1N1) virus. Clin Infect Dis. 2010 Jun 1;50(11):1493-6.

Ebell MH, Call M, Shinholser J. Effectiveness of oseltamivir in adults: a meta-analysis of published and unpublished clinical trials. Family practice 2013; 30(2): 125-33.

Eriksson CO, Graham DA, Uyeki TM, Randolph AG. Risk factors for mechanical ventilation in U.S. children hospitalized with seasonal influenza and 2009 pandemic influenza A*. Pediatric critical care medicine : a journal of the Society of Critical Care Medicine and the World

Eyler RF, Heung M, Pleva M, et al. Pharmacokinetics of oseltamivir and oseltamivir carboxylate in critically ill patients receiving continuous venovenous hemodialysis and/or extracorporeal membrane oxygenation. Pharmacotherapy. 2012 Dec; 32(12): 1061-9.

Eyler RF, Klein KC, Mueller BA. The pharmacokinetics of oseltamivir and oseltamivir carboxylate in a critically ill pediatric patient receiving extracorporeal membrane oxygenation and continuous venovenous hemodialysis. J Pediatr Pharmacol Ther. 2012 Apr; 17(2):173-6.

Food and Drug Administration. Influenza (Flu) Antiviral Drugs and Related Information.

Food and Drug Administration. Approved Drug Products with Therapeutic Equivalence Evaluations [10.2 MB, 1298 pages].

Fry AM, Goswami D, Nahar K, et al. Efficacy of oseltamivir treatment started within 5 days of symptom onset to reduce influenza illness duration and virus shedding in an urban setting in Bangladesh: a randomised placebo-controlled trial. The Lancet 2013; doi:10.1016/S1473-3099(13)70267-6.

Gaur AH, Bagga B, Barman S, Hayden R, Lamptey A, Hoffman JM, Bhojwani D, Flynn PM, Tuomanen E, Webby R. Intravenous zanamivir for oseltamivir-resistant 2009 H1N1 influenza. N Engl J Med. 2010 Jan 7;362(1):88-9.

Giraud C, Manceau S, Oualha M, et al. High levels and safety of oseltamivir carboxylate plasma concentrations after nasogastric administration in critically ill children in a pediatric intensive care unit. Antimicrob Agents Chemother. 2011; 55(1): 433-5.

Graitcer SB, Gubareva L, Kamimoto L, et al. Characteristics of patients with oseltamivir-resistant pandemic (H1N1) 2009, United States. Emerging Infect Dis. 2011; 17(2): 255-7.

Härter G, Zimmermann O, Maier L, Schubert A, Mertens T, Kern P, Wöhrle J. Intravenous zanamivir for patients with pneumonitis due to pandemic (H1N1) 2009 influenza virus. Clin Infect Dis. 2010 May 1;50(9):1249-51.

Hernan MA, Lipsitch M. Oseltamivir and risk of lower respiratory tract complications in patients with flu symptoms: a meta-analysis of eleven randomized clinical trials. Clinical infectious diseases : an official publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America 2011; 53(3): 277-9.

Hiba V, Chowers M, Levi-Vinograd I, Rubinovitch B, Leibovici L, Paul M. Benefit of early treatment with oseltamivir in hospitalized patients with documented 2009 influenza A (H1N1): retrospective cohort study. The Journal of antimicrobial chemotherapy 2011; 66(5): 1150-5.

Hsu J, Santesso N, Mustafa R, Brozek J, Chen YL, Hopkins JP, Cheung A, Hovhannisyan G, Ivanova L, Flottorp SA, Saeterdal I, Wong AD, Tian J, Uyeki TM, Akl EA, Alonso-Coello P, Smaill F, Schünemann HJ. Antivirals for treatment of influenza: a systematic review and meta-analysis of observational studies. Ann Intern Med. 2012 Apr 3;156(7):512-24.

Hurt AC, Hardie K, Wilson NJ, Deng YM, Osbourn M, Leang SK, Lee RT, Iannello P, Gehrig N, Shaw R, Wark P, Caldwell N, Givney RC, Xue L, Maurer-Stroh S, Dwyer DE, Wang B, Smith DW, Levy A, Booy R, Dixit R, Merritt T, Kelso A, Dalton C, Durrheim D, Barr IG. Characteristics of a widespread community cluster of H275Y oseltamivir-resistant A(H1N1)pdm09 influenza in Australia. J Infect Dis. 2012 Jul 15;206(2):148-57.

Hurt AC, Hardie K, Wilson NJ, Deng YM, Osbourn M, Gehrig N, Kelso A. Community transmission of oseltamivir-resistant A(H1N1)pdm09 influenza. N Engl J Med. 2011 Dec 29;365(26):2541-2.

Hurt AC, Chotpitayasunondh T, Cox NJ, Daniels R, Fry AM, Gubareva LV, Hayden FG, Hui DS, Hungnes O, Lackenby A, Lim W, Meijer A, Penn C, Tashiro M, Uyeki TM, Zambon M; WHO Consultation on Pandemic Influenza A (H1N1) 2009 Virus Resistance to Antivirals. Antiviral resistance during the 2009 influenza A H1N1 pandemic: public health, laboratory, and clinical perspectives. Lancet Infect Dis. 2012 Mar;12(3):240-8.

Jefferson T, Jones MA, Doshi P, Del Mar CB, Heneghan CJ, Hama R, Thompson MJ. Neuraminidase inhibitors for preventing and treating influenza in healthy adults and children. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2012 Jan 18;1:CD008965.

Jittamala P, Pukrittayakamee S, Tarning J, et al. Pharmacokinetics of orally administered oseltamivir in healthy obese and non-obese Thai subjects. Antimicrob Agents Chemother. 2014; 58(3): 1615-21.

Kidd IM, Down J, Nastouli E, Shulman R, Grant PR, Howell DC, Singer M. H1N1 pneumonitis treated with intravenous zanamivir. Lancet. 2009 Sep 19;374(9694):1036.

Kimberlin DW et al., Oseltamivir pharmacokinetics, dosing, and resistance in children from birth to two years of age with influenza. Journal of Infectious Diseases 2012;epublished ahead of print.

Kromdijk W, Sikma MA, van den Broek MP, et al. Pharmacokinetics of oseltamivir carboxylate in critically ill patients: each patient is unique. Intensive Care Med. 2013; 39(5): 977-8.

Kumar D, Morris MI, Kotton CN, et al. Guidance on novel influenza A/H1N1 in solid organ transplant recipients. Am J Transplant. 2010; 10(1): 18-25.

Lackenby A, Moran Gilad J, Pebody R, et al. Continued emergence and changing epidemiology of oseltamivir-resistant influenza A(H1N1)2009 virus, United Kingdom, winter 2010/11. Euro Surveill. 2011; 16(5).

Lee N, Hui DS, Zuo Z, et al. A prospective intervention study on higher-dose oseltamivir treatment in adults hospitalized with influenza a and B infections. Clin Infect Dis. 2013; 57(11): 1511-9.

Lemaitre F, Luyt CE, Roullet-Renoleau F, et al. Impact of extracorporeal membrane oxygenation and continuous venovenous hemodiafiltration on the pharmacokinetics of oseltamivir carboxylate in critically ill patients with pandemic (H1N1) influenza. Ther Drug Monit. 2012; 34(2): 171-5.

Lipsitch M, Hernan MA. Oseltamivir effect on antibiotic-treated lower respiratory tract complications in virologically positive randomized trial participants. Clinical infectious diseases : an official publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America 2013; 57(9): 1368-9.

Louie J, Yang S, Samuel M, Uyeki T, Schechter R. Neuraminidase Inhibitors for Critically Ill Children With Influenza. Pediatrics. 2013; doi: 10.1542/peds.2013-2149.

Louie JK, Yang S, Acosta M, Yen C, Samuel MC, Schechter R, Guevara H, Uyeki TM. Treatment With Neuraminidase Inhibitors for Critically Ill Patients With Influenza A (H1N1)pdm09. Clin Infect Dis. 2012 Nov;55(9):1198-204.

Marra F, Chong M, Henry B, Patrick DM, Kendall P. Effectiveness of neuraminidase inhibitors in preventing hospitalization during the H1N1 influenza pandemic in British Columbia, Canada. The Journal of antimicrobial chemotherapy 2013.

Moore C, Galiano M, Lackenby A, Abdelrahman T, Barnes R, Evans MR, Fegan C, Froude S, Hastings M, Knapper S, Litt E, Price N, Salmon R, Temple M, Davies E. Evidence of person-to-person transmission of oseltamivir-resistant pandemic influenza A(H1N1) 2009 virus in a hematology unit. J Infect Dis. 2011 Jan 1;203(1):18-24.

Mulla H, Peek GJ, Harvey C, et al. Oseltamivir pharmacokinetics in critically ill adults receiving extracorporeal membrane oxygenation support. Anaesth Intensive Care. 2013; 41(1): 66-73.

Muthuri SG, Myles PR, Venkatesan S, Leonardi-Bee J, Nguyen-Van-Tam JS. Impact of neuraminidase inhibitor treatment on outcomes of public health importance during the 2009-10 influenza A(H1N1) pandemic: a systematic review and metaanalysis in hospitalized patients. Journal of Infectious Diseases 2012;early release.

Muthuri SG, Venkatesan S, Myles PR, et al. Effectiveness of neuraminidase inhibitors in reducing mortality in patients admitted to a hospital with influenza A H1N1 pdm09 virus infection: a meta-analysis of individual participant data. Lancet Res Med. 2014 Mar; 10.1016/ S2213-2600(14)70041-4.

National Institutes of Health. Registry of federally and privately supported clinical trials conducted in the United States and around the world.

Nguyen HT, Fry AM, Gubareva LV. Neuraminidase inhibitor resistance in influenza viruses and laboratory testing methods. Antivir Ther. 2012;17(1 Pt B):159-73.

Pai MP, Lodise TP, Jr. Oseltamivir and oseltamivir carboxylate pharmacokinetics in obese adults: dose modification for weight is not necessary. Antimicrob Agents Chemother. 2011; 55(12): 5640-5.

Randolph AG, Vaughn F, Sullivan R, et al. Critically ill children during the 2009-2010 influenza pandemic in the United States. Pediatrics. 2011 Dec; 128(6):e1450-8. doi: 10.1542/peds.2011-0774. Epub 2011 Nov 7.

Rasmussen SA, Jamieson DJ, Macfarlane K, et al. Pandemic influenza and pregnant women: summary of a meeting of experts. Am J Public Health. 2009; 99(Suppl 2): S248-54.

Rasmussen SA, Kissin DM, Yeung LF, et al. Preparing for influenza after 2009 H1N1: special considerations for pregnant women and newborns. American journal of obstetrics and gynecology 2011; 204(6 Suppl 1): S13-20.

Seo S, Englund JA, Nguyen JT, et al. Combination therapy with amantadine, oseltamivir and ribavirin for influenza A infection: safety and pharmacokinetics. Antiviral Therapy 2013; 18(3): 377-86.

Siston AM, Rasmussen SA, Honein MA, Fry AM, Seib K, Callaghan WM, Louie J, Doyle TJ, Crockett M, Lynfield R, Moore Z, Wiedeman C, Anand M, Tabony L, Nielsen CF, Waller K, Page S, Thompson JM, Avery C, Springs CB, Jones T, Williams JL, Newsome K, Finelli L, Jamieson DJ; Pandemic H1N1 Influenza in Pregnancy Working Group. Pandemic 2009 influenza A(H1N1) virus illness among pregnant women in the United States. JAMA. 2010 Apr 21;303(15):1517-25.

South East Asia Infectious Disease Clinical Research Network. Effect of double dose oseltamivir on clinical and virological outcomes in children and adults admitted to hospital with severe influenza: double blind randomised controlled trial. BMJ. 2013; 346: f3039.

Stephenson I, Democratis J, Lackenby A, McNally T, Smith J, Pareek M, Ellis J, Bermingham A, Nicholson K, Zambon M. Neuraminidase inhibitor resistance after oseltamivir treatment of acute influenza A and B in children. Clin Infect Dis. 2009 Feb 15;48(4):389-96.

Takashita E, Ejima M, Itoh R, et al. A community cluster of influenza A(H1N1)pdm09 virus exhibiting cross-resistance to oseltamivir and peramivir in Japan, November to December 2013. Euro Surveill. 2014; 19(1).

Thorne-Humphrey LM, Goralski KB, Slayter KL, et al. Oseltamivir pharmacokinetics in morbid obesity (OPTIMO trial). J Antimicrob Chemother. 2011; 66(9): 2083-91.

Viasus D, Paño-Pardo JR, Pachón J, Riera M, López-Medrano F, Payeras A, Fariñas MC, Moreno A, Rodríguez-Baño J, Oteo JA, Ortega L, Torre-Cisneros J, Segura F, Carratalà J; Novel Influenza A(H1N1) Study Group of the Spanish Network for Research in Infectious Diseases (REIPI). Timing of oseltamivir administration and outcomes in hospitalized adults with pandemic 2009 influenza A(H1N1) virus infection. Chest. 2011 Oct;140(4):1025-32.

Yang SG, Cao B, Liang LR, Li XL, Xiao YH, Cao ZX, Jia HY, Yu HJ, Xu Z, Gu L, Yang YD, Chen Y, Du WB, Yan XX, Liang ZA, Zhang W, Zhang CL, Chen W, Guo CP, Jiang XL, Yang M, Deng GM, Yu KJ, Hu K, Zou Q, Li LJ, Wang C; National Influenza A Pandemic (H1N1) 2009 Clinical Investigation Group of China. Antiviral therapy and outcomes of patients with pneumonia caused by influenza A pandemic (H1N1) virus. PLoS One. 2012;7(1):e29652.

Yokota RT, Skalinski LM, Igansi CN, et al. Risk factors for death from pandemic (H1N1) 2009, southern Brazil. Emerg Infect Dis. 2011 Aug;17(8):1467-71. doi: 10.3201/eid1708.101233.

Yu H, Feng Z, Uyeki TM, Liao Q, Zhou L, Feng L, Ye M, Xiang N, Huai Y, Yuan Y, Jiang H, Zheng Y, Gargiullo P, Peng Z, Feng Y, Zheng J, Xu C, Zhang Y, Shu Y, Gao Z, Yang W, Wang Y. Risk factors for severe illness with 2009 pandemic influenza A (H1N1) virus infection in China. Clin Infect Dis. 2011 Feb 15;52(4):457-65.

Below are the references cited in Antiviral Agents for the Treatment and Chemoprophylaxis of Influenza - Recommendations of the Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices (ACIP).
PDF Version [1 MB, 28 pages]

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