Interim Guidance for Healthcare Professionals
Healthcare providers should maintain awareness of the need to detect patients who should be evaluated for Middle East Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus (MERS-CoV) infection; this requires clinical judgment as information on modes of transmission of MERS-CoV, and clinical presentation of MERS, is limited and continues to evolve.
Limited data on the clinical presentation of MERS are available; most published clinical information to date is from critically ill patients. At hospital admission, common signs and symptoms include fever, chills/rigors, headache, non-productive cough, dyspnea, and myalgia. Other symptoms can include sore throat, coryza, sputum production, dizziness, nausea and vomiting, diarrhea, and abdominal pain. Atypical presentations including mild respiratory illness without fever and diarrheal illness preceding development of pneumonia have been reported. Clinical judgment should be used to guide testing of patients for MERS-CoV infection.
Healthcare providers should evaluate patients in the U.S. for MERS-CoV infection if they meet the following criteria, defined as a Patient Under Investigation (PUI):
- Fever AND pneumonia or acute respiratory distress syndrome (based on clinical or radiologic evidence) AND EITHER:
- history of travel from countries in or near the Arabian Peninsula1 within 14 days before symptom onset, OR
- close contact2 with a symptomatic traveler who developed fever and acute respiratory illness (not necessarily pneumonia) within 14 days after traveling from countries in or near the Arabian Peninsula1, OR
- a member of a cluster of patients with severe acute respiratory illness (e.g., fever and pneumonia requiring hospitalization) of unknown etiology in which MERS-CoV is being evaluated, in consultation with state and local health departments,
- Fever AND symptoms of respiratory illness (not necessarily pneumonia; e.g., cough, shortness of breath) AND being in a healthcare facility (as a patient, worker, or visitor) within 14 days before symptom onset in a country or territory in or near the Arabian Peninsula in which recent healthcare-associated cases of MERS have been identified,
- Fever OR symptoms of respiratory illness (not necessarily pneumonia; e.g. cough, shortness of breath) AND close contact2 with a confirmed MERS case while the case was ill.
CLOSE CONTACTS OF A CONFIRMED CASE
As part of investigation of confirmed cases, in consultation with a state or local health department, a person who develops fever or symptoms of respiratory illness within 14 days following close contact2 with a confirmed case of MERS while the case was ill should be evaluated for MERS-CoV infection.
Other contacts of the ill person, such as community contacts or contacts on conveyances (e.g., airplane, bus), may be considered for evaluation in consultation with state and local health departments.
Clinicians should be aware that the spectrum of illness due to MERS-CoV infection is incompletely defined. Although most reported cases have had severe acute lower respiratory illness, mild infections, and infections with no apparent symptoms, have been reported. Additionally, in some cases, diarrhea preceded respiratory symptoms. Other early symptoms have included headache, chills, myalgia, nausea/vomiting and diarrhea. Symptomatic contacts should be evaluated and, depending on their clinical history and presentation, considered for more extensive MERS-CoV testing, including rRT-PCR testing of lower respiratory and serum specimens, and possibly MERS-CoV serology, if symptom onset was more than 14 days prior.
Close contacts2 who are ill and do not require hospitalization for medical reasons may, in consultation with the state or local health department, be cared for and isolated in their home while being evaluated for MERS-CoV infection. (Isolation is defined as the separation or restriction of activities of an ill person with a contagious disease from those who are well). The possible benefit of home quarantine or other measures, such as wearing masks, is uncertain due to lack of information about transmissibility from persons with mild, or no apparent, symptoms. Contacts with no apparent symptoms who test positive by PCR, especially in respiratory specimens or serum, likely pose a risk of transmission, although the magnitude and contributing factors are unknown. Providers should contact their state or local health department to discuss home isolation, home quarantine or other measures for close contacts, especially for patients who test positive, and to discuss criteria for discontinuing any such measures.
Recommendations may be modified as more data become available. For more information, see CDC’s Interim Home Care and Isolation or Quarantine Guidance for MERS-CoV.
CLOSE CONTACTS OF A PUI
Evaluation and management of close contacts2 of a PUI should be discussed with state and local health departments. Close contacts of a PUI should monitor themselves for fever and respiratory illness and seek medical attention if they become ill within 14 days after contact; healthcare providers should consider the possibility of MERS in these contacts.
Clusters4 of patients with severe acute respiratory illness (e.g., fever and pneumonia requiring hospitalization) without recognized links to a case of MERS-CoV infection or to travelers from countries in or near the Arabian Peninsula1 should be evaluated for common respiratory pathogens.3 If the illnesses remain unexplained, providers should consider testing for MERS-CoV, in consultation with state and local health departments.
Healthcare providers should immediately report to their state or local health department any person being evaluated for MERS-CoV infection if they meet the criteria for a patient under investigation (PUI).
Health departments should immediately report PUIs to CDC using the MERS PUI short form below. They should send completed investigation short forms by FAX to CDC at 770-488-7107 or attach the short form to an e-mail to email@example.com (subject line: MERS Patient Form).
- Middle East Respiratory Syndrome (MERS) Patient Under Investigation (PUI) Short Form version 6.0 (updated Jul 2014)
For a list of changes to form, see Summary of Changes.
To date, limited information is available on the pathogenic potential and transmission dynamics of MERS-CoV. To increase the likelihood of detecting MERS-CoV infection, CDC recommends collecting multiple specimens from different sites at different times after symptom onset. For more information, see CDC’s Interim Guidelines for Collecting, Handling, and Testing Clinical Specimens from PUIs for MERS-CoV. In a PUI, CDC strongly recommends testing a lower respiratory specimen (e.g., sputum, broncheoalveolar lavage fluid, or tracheal aspirate), a nasopharygeal/oropharygeal swab, and serum, via the CDC MERS-CoV rRT-PCR assay. If symptom onset was more than 14 days prior, CDC also strongly recommends additional testing of a serum specimen via the CDC MERS-CoV serologic assay.
Many state health department laboratories are approved for MERS-CoV testing using CDC’s MERS-CoV rRT-PCR assay. Contact your state health department to notify them of PUIs and to request MERS-CoV testing. If your state health department is unable to test, contact CDC’s EOC at 770-488-7100.
Appropriate infection-control measures should be used while managing patients, including specimen collection from PUIs and probable or confirmed MERS cases. For CDC guidance on MERS-CoV infection control in healthcare settings, see Interim Infection Prevention and Control Recommendations for Hospitalized Patients with MERS-CoV. For CDC interim guidance to prevent MERS-CoV from spreading in homes and communities in the U.S., see Interim Home Care and Isolation or Quarantine Guidance for MERS-CoV.
- Countries considered in the Arabian Peninsula and neighboring include: Bahrain; Iraq; Iran; Israel, the West Bank and Gaza; Jordan; Kuwait; Lebanon; Oman; Qatar; Saudi Arabia; Syria; the United Arab Emirates (UAE); and Yemen.
- Close contact is defined as a) being within approximately 6 feet (2 meters) or within the room or care area for a prolonged period of time (e.g., healthcare personnel, household members) while not wearing recommended personal protective equipment (i.e., gowns, gloves, respirator, eye protection—see Infection Prevention and Control Recommendations); or b) having direct contact with infectious secretions (e.g., being coughed on) while not wearing recommended personal protective equipment (i.e., gowns, gloves, respirator, eye protection—see Infection Prevention and Control Recommendations). Data to inform the definition of close contact are limited. At this time, brief interactions, such as walking by a person, are considered low risk and do not constitute close contact.
- Examples of respiratory pathogens causing community-acquired pneumonia include influenza A and B, respiratory syncytial virus, Streptococcus pneumoniae, and Legionella pneumophila.
- In accordance with the World Health Organization’s guidance for MERS-CoV, a cluster is defined as two or more persons with onset of symptoms within the same 14 days period, and who are associated with a specific setting such as a classroom, workplace, household, extended family, hospital, other residential institution, military barracks, or recreational camp. See WHO’s Interim Surveillance Recommendations for Human Infection with Middle East Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus[5 pages].