Screening Recommendations and Considerations Referenced in Treatment Guidelines and Original Sources

Chlamydia
Women
  • Sexually active women under 25 years of age1
  • Sexually active women 25 years of age and older if at increased risk (those who have a new sex partner, more than one sex partner, a sex partner with concurrent partners, or a sex partner who has an STI)1
  • Retest approximately 3 months after treatment2
  • Rectal chlamydial testing can be considered in females based on reported sexual behaviors and exposure, through shared clinical decision between the patient and the provider3,4
Pregnant Women
  • All pregnant women under 25 years of age1
  • Pregnant women, 25 years of age and older if at increased risk (those who have a new sex partner, more than one sex partner, a sex partner with concurrent partners, or a sex partner who has an STI)2
  • Retest during the 3rd trimester for women under 25 years of age or at risk2
  • Pregnant women with chlamydial infection should have a test of cure 4 weeks after treatment and be retested within 3 months2
Men Who Have Sex with Women
  • There is insufficient evidence for screening among heterosexual men who are at low risk for infection, however, screening young men can be considered in high prevalence clinical settings (adolescent clinics, correctional facilities, STI/sexual health clinic)1, 5 
Men Who Have Sex With Men
  • At least annually for sexually active MSM at sites of contact (urethra, rectum) regardless of condom use2
  • Every 3 to 6 months if at increased risk (i.e., MSM on PrEP, with HIV infection, or if they or their sex partners have multiple partners)2
Transgender and Gender Diverse Persons
  • Screening recommendations should be adapted based on anatomy, (i.e., annual, routine screening for Chlamydia in cis-gender women < 25 years old should be extended to all transgender men and gender diverse people with a cervix. If over 25 years old, persons with a cervix should be screened if at increased risk.)2
  • Consider screening at the rectal site based on reported sexual behaviors and exposure2
Persons with HIV
  • For sexually active individuals, screen at first HIV evaluation, and at least annually thereafter2, 6
  • More frequent screening for might be appropriate depending on individual risk behaviors and the local epidemiology2
Gonorrhea
Women
  • Sexually active women under 25 years of age1
  • Sexually active women 25 years of age and older if at increased risk (those who have a new sex partner, more than one sex partner, a sex partner with concurrent partners, or a sex partner who has an STI or transactional sex)1
  • Retest 3 months after treatment2
  • Pharyngeal and rectal gonorrhea screening can be considered in females based on reported sexual behaviors and exposure, through shared clinical decision between the patient and the provider3,4
Pregnant Women
  • All pregnant women under 25 years of age, and those 25 and older if at increased risk (those who have a new sex partner, more than one sex partner, a sex partner with concurrent partners, or a sex partner who has an STI)1
  • Retest during the 3rd trimester for women under 25 years of age or at risk2
  • Pregnant women with gonorrhea should be retested within 3 months2
Men Who Have Sex with Women
  • There is insufficient evidence for screening among heterosexual men who are at low risk for infection1, 5
Men Who Have Sex With Men
  • At least annually for sexually active MSM at sites of contact (urethra, rectum, pharynx) regardless of condom use2
  • Every 3 to 6 months if at increased risk2
Transgender and Gender Diverse Persons
  • Screening recommendations should be adapted based on anatomy (i.e., annual, routine screening for gonorrhea in cisgender women <25 years old should be extended to all transgender men and gender diverse people with a cervix.  If over 25 years old, screen if at increased risk)2
  • Consider screening at the pharyngeal and rectal site based on reported sexual behaviors and exposure2
Persons with HIV
  • For sexually active individuals, screen at first HIV evaluation, and at least annually thereafter2, 6
  • More frequent screening might be appropriate depending on individual risk behaviors and the local epidemiology2
Syphilis
Women and Men Who Have Sex with Women
  • Screen asymptomatic adults at increased risk (history of incarceration or transactional sex work, geography, race/ethnicity, and being a male younger than 29 years) for syphilis infection2,7
Pregnant Women
  • All pregnant women at the first prenatal visit8
  • Retest at 28 weeks gestation and at delivery if at high risk (lives in a community with high syphilis morbidity or is at risk for syphilis acquisition during pregnancy (using drugs, STIs during pregnancy, multiple partners, a new partner, partner with STIs))2
Men Who Have Sex With Men
  • At least annually for sexually active MSM2
  • Every 3 to 6 months if at increased risk2
Transgender and Gender Diverse People
  • Consider screening at least annually based on reported sexual behaviors and exposure2
Persons with HIV
  • For sexually active individuals, screen at first HIV evaluation, and at least annually thereafter9,10
  • More frequent screening might be appropriate depending on individual risk behaviors and the local epidemiology2
Herpes
Women
  • Type-specific HSV serologic testing can be considered for women presenting for an STI evaluation (especially for women with multiple sex partners)2, 10
Pregnant Women
  • Evidence does not support routine HSV-2 serologic screening among asymptomatic pregnant women. However, type-specific serologic tests might be useful for identifying pregnant women at risk for HSV infection and guiding counseling regarding the risk for acquiring genital herpes during pregnancy2
Men Who Have Sex with Women
  • Type-specific HSV serologic testing can be considered for men presenting for an STI evaluation (especially for men with multiple sex partners)2, 10
Men Who Have Sex With Men
  • Type-specific serologic tests can be considered if infection status is unknown in MSM with previously undiagnosed genital tract infection2, 10
Persons with HIV
  • Type-specific HSV serologic testing should be considered for persons presenting for an STI evaluation (especially for those persons with multiple sex partners)2
Trichomonas
Women
  • Consider screening for women receiving care in high-prevalence settings (e.g., STI clinics and correctional facilities) and for asymptomatic women at high risk for infection (e.g., women with multiple sex partners, transactional sex, drug misuse, or a history of STI or incarceration)2
Persons with HIV
  • Recommended for sexually active women at entry to care and at least annually thereafter2, 9
HIV
Women
  • All women aged 13-64 years (opt-out)**11, 12
  • All women who seek evaluation and treatment for STIs2, 12
Pregnant Women
  • All pregnant women should be screened at first prenatal visit (opt-out)12
  • Retest in the 3rd trimester if at high risk (people who use drugs, have STIs during pregnancy, have multiple sex partners during pregnancy, have a new sex partner during pregnancy, live in areas with high HIV prevalence, or have partners with HIV)13
  • Rapid testing should be performed at delivery if not previous screened during pregnancy12
Men Who Have Sex with Women
  • All men aged 13-64 years (opt-out)**11
  • All men who seek evaluation and treatment for STIs2
Men Who Have Sex With Men
  • At least annually for sexually active MSM if HIV status is unknown or negative and the patient or their sex partner(s) have had more than one sex partner since most recent HIV test2, 12, 14
  • Consider the benefits of offering more frequent HIV screening (e.g., every 3–6 months) to MSM at increased risk for acquiring HIV infection.
Transgender and Gender Diverse Persons
  • HIV screening should be discussed and offered to all transgender persons. Frequency of repeat screenings should be based on level of risk2, 14
HPV, Cervical Cancer, Anal cancer
Women
  • Women 21-29 years of age every 3 years with cytology
  • Women 30-65 years of age every 3 years with cytology, or every 5 years with a combination of cytology and HPV testing15, 16, 17
Pregnant Women
  • Pregnant women should be screened at same intervals as nonpregnant cis-gender women
Men Who Have Sex with Men
  • Digital anorectal rectal exam2
  • Data is insufficient to recommend routine anal cancer screening with anal cytology2
Transgender and Gender Diverse People
  • Screening for people with a cervix should follow current screening guidelines for cervical cancer2
Persons with HIV
  • Women with HIV should be screened within 1 year of sexual activity using conventional or liquid-based cytology; testing should be repeated 6 months later. With 3 normal and consecutive Pap tests, screening should be every 3 years18, 19
Hepatitis B Screening
Women
  • Women at increased risk (having had more than one sex partner in the previous 6 months, evaluation or treatment for an STI, past or current injection-drug use, and an HBsAg-positive sex partner)20
Pregnant Women
  • Test for HBsAg at first prenatal visit of each pregnancy regardless of prior testing; retest at delivery if at high risk21
Men Who Have Sex with Women
  • Men at increased risk (i.e., by sexual or percutaneous exposure)20
Men Who Have Sex With Men
  • All MSM should be tested for HBsAg, HBV core antibody, and HBV surface antibody20
Persons with HIV
  • Test for HBsAg and anti-HBc and/or anti-HBs20

 

Hepatitis C
Women
  • All adults over age 18 years should be screened for hepatitis C except in settings where the hepatitis C infection (HCV) positivity is < 0.1% 22
Pregnant Women
  • Pregnant women should be screened for hepatitis C except in settings where the hepatitis C infection (HCV) positivity is < 0.1% 22
Men Who Have Sex with Women
  • All adults over age 18 years should be screened for hepatitis C except in settings where the hepatitis C infection (HCV) positivity is < 0.1% 22
Men Who Have Sex With Men
  • All adults over age 18 years should be screened for hepatitis C except in settings where the hepatitis C infection (HCV) positivity is < 0.1% 22
Persons with HIV
  • Serologic testing at initial evaluation2, 22
  • Annual HCV testing in MSM with HIV infection2, 22

References

** USPSTF recommends screening in adults and adolescents ages 15-65

  1. LeFevre ML. Screening for Chlamydia and Gonorrhea: U.S. Preventive Services Task Force Recommendation Statement. Annals of internal medicine. Sep 23 2014.
  2. Workowski KA, Bachmann L, Chan P, Johnston C, Muzny C, Park I, Reno H, Zenilman J, Bolan G. Sexually Transmitted Infections, 2021. MMWR Recomm Rep 2021:70(No. RR-04):1-187.
  3. Bamberger, DM, et al. Extragenital Gonorrhea and Chlamydia Among Men and Women According to Type of Sexual Exposure. Sex Transm Dis, 2019. 46(5): p. 329-334.
  4. Chan PA, Robinette A, Montgomery M, et al. Extragenital Infections Caused by Chlamydia trachomatis and Neisseria gonorrhoeae: A Review of the Literature. Infect Dis Obstet Gynecol. 2016.
  5. Rietmeijer CA, Hopkins E, Geisler WM, Orr DP, Kent CK. Chlamydia trachomatis Positivity Rates Among Men Tested in Selected Venues in the United States: A Review of the Recent Literature. Sex Transm Dis 2008;35(Suppl):S8–18. PMID:18449072 https://doi.org/10.1097/ OLQ.0b013e31816938ba.
  6. Thompson MA, Horberg MA, Agwu AL, et al. Primary Care Guidelines for Persons With HIV: 2020 Update by the HIV Medicine Association of the Infectious Diseases Society of America.  CID. Nov 6 2020.
  7. Kirsten Bibbins-Domingo. USPSTF Recommendation Statement, Screening for Syphilis Infection in Nonpregnant Adults and Adolescents U.S. Preventive Services Task Force Recommendation Statement. JAMA June 7, 2016 Volume 315, Number 21: 2321-2327.
  8. Screening for Syphilis Infection in Pregnant Women U.S. Preventive Services Task Force Reaffirmation Recommendation Statement. JAMA September 4, 2018 Volume 320, Number 9.
  9. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Health Resources and Services Administration, National Institutes of Health, American Academy of HIV Medicine, Association of Nurses in AIDS Care, International Association of Providers of AIDS Care, the National Minority AIDS Council, and Urban Coalition for HIV/AIDS Prevention Services. Recommendations for HIV Prevention with Adults and Adolescents with HIV in the United States, 2014. 2014. http://stacks.cdc.gov/view/cdc/26062. December 11, 2014.
  10. Type-specific HSV-2 serologic assays for diagnosing HSV-2 are useful in the following scenarios: recurrent or atypical genital symptoms or lesions with a negative HSV PCR or culture result, clinical diagnosis of genital herpes without laboratory confirmation, and a patient’s partner has genital herpes. HSV-2 serologic screening among the general population is not recommended. Patients who are at higher risk for infection (e.g., those presenting for an STI evaluation, especially for persons with ≥10 lifetime sex partners, and persons with HIV infection) might need to be assessed for a history of genital herpes symptoms, followed by type-specific HSV serologic assays to diagnose genital herpes for those with genital symptoms.
  11. Branson BM, et al. Revised Recommendations for HIV Testing of Adults, Adolescents, and Pregnant Women in Healthcare Settings. MMWR. 2006;55(No. RR-14):1-17.
  12. Owens DK. U.S. Preventive Services Task Force. Screening for HIV: U.S. Preventive Services Task Force Recommendation Statement. JAMA. 2019 321(23): 2326-2336.
  13. Committee on Obstetric Practice HIV Expert Work Group. ACOG Committee opinion no. 752: prenatal and perinatal human immunodeficiency virus testing. Obstet Gynecol 2018;132:e138–42. PMID:30134428 https://doi.org/10.1097/AOG.0000000000002825external icon
  14. DiNenno EA, et al. Recommendations for HIV Screening of Gay, Bisexual, and Other Men Who Have Sex with Men – United States, 2017. MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep, 2017. 66(31): p. 830-832.
  15. Committee on Practice Bulletins—Gynecology. Practice bulletin no. 157: Cervical Cancer Screening and Prevention. Obstet Gynecol 2016;127:e1–20. PMID:26695583 https://doi.org/10.1097/ AOG.0000000000001263
  16. Fontham ETH, Wolf AMD, Church TR, et al. Cervical Cancer Screening for Individuals at Average Risk: 2020 Guideline Update from the American Cancer Society. CA Cancer J Clin 2020;70:321–46. PMID:32729638 https://doi.org/10.3322/caac.21628external icon
  17. Curry SJ, et al. Screening for Cervical Cancer: U.S. Preventive Services Task Force Recommendation Statement. JAMA, 2018. 320(7): p. 674-686.
  18. Data are insufficient to recommend routine anal cancer screening with anal cytology among populations at risk for anal cancer. Certain clinical centers perform anal cytology to screen for anal cancer among populations at high risk (e.g., persons with HIV infection, MSM, and those having receptive anal intercourse), followed by high-resolution anoscopy (HRA) for those with abnormal cytologic results (e.g., ACS-US, LSIL, or HSIL)
  19. Panel on Opportunistic Infections in Adults and Adolescents with HIV. Guidelines for the prevention and treatment of opportunistic infections in adults and adolescents with HIV: recommendations from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, the National Institutes of Health, and the HIV Medicine Association of the Infections Diseases Society of America. Available at https://clinicalinfo.hiv.gov/sites/default/files/guidelines/documents/Adult_OI.pdfpdf iconexternal icon.
  20. Schillie S, Vellozzi C, Reingold A, et al. Prevention of Hepatitis B Virus Infection in the United States: Recommendations of the Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices. MMWR Recomm Rep 2018;67(No. RR-1). PMID:29939980 https://www.cdc.gov/mmwr/volumes/67/rr/rr6701a1.htm.
  21. Henderson JT, Webber EM, Bean SI. Screening for Hepatitis B Infection in Pregnant Women: Updated Evidence Report and Systematic Review for the U.S. Preventive Services Task Force. JAMA. 2019;322(4):360–362.
  22. Screening for Hepatitis C Virus Infection in Adolescents and Adults U.S. Preventive Services Task Force Recommendation Statement S. Preventive Services Task Force Article Informationexternal icon JAMA. 2020;323(10):970-975. doi:10.1001/jama.2020.1123.
Women
Chlamydia

 

  • Sexually active women under 25 years of age1
  • Sexually active women 25 years of age and older if at increased risk (those who have a new sex partner, more than one sex partner, a sex partner with concurrent partners, or a sex partner who has an STI)1
  • Retest approximately 3 months after treatment2
  • Rectal chlamydial testing can be considered in females based on reported sexual behaviors and exposure, through shared clinical decision between the patient and the provider3,4
Gonorrhea
  • Sexually active women under 25 years of age1
  • Sexually active women 25 years of age and older if at increased risk (those who have a new sex partner, more than one sex partner, a sex partner with concurrent partners, or a sex partner who has an STI or transactional sex)1
  • Retest 3 months after treatment2
  • Pharyngeal and rectal gonorrhea screening can be considered in females based on reported sexual behaviors and exposure, through shared clinical decision between the patient and the provider3,4
Syphilis
  • Screen asymptomatic adults at increased risk (history of incarceration or transactional sex work, geography, race/ethnicity, and being a male younger than 29 years) for syphilis infection2,5
Herpes
  • Type-specific HSV serologic testing can be considered for women presenting for an STI evaluation (especially for women with multiple sex partners)2, 6
Trichomonas
  • Consider screening for women receiving care in high-prevalence settings (e.g., STI clinics and correctional facilities) and for asymptomatic women at high risk for infection (e.g., women with multiple sex partners, transactional sex, drug misuse, or a history of STI or incarceration)2
HIV
  • All women aged 13-64 years (opt-out)**7, 8
  • All women who seek evaluation and treatment for STIs2, 8
HPV, Cervical Cancer, Anal Cancer
  • Women 21-29 years of age every 3 years with cytology
  • Women 30-65 years of age every 3 years with cytology, or every 5 years with a combination of cytology and HPV testing9, 10, 11
Hepatitis B Screening
  • Women at increased risk (having had more than one sex partner in the previous 6 months, evaluation or treatment for an STI, past or current injection-drug use, and an HBsAg-positive sex partner)12
Hepatitis C Screening
  • All adults over age 18 years should be screened for hepatitis C except in settings where the hepatitis C infection (HCV) positivity is < 0.1%13
Pregnant Women
Chlamydia
  • All pregnant women under 25 years of age1
  • Pregnant women, 25 years of age and older if at increased risk (those who have a new sex partner, more than one sex partner, a sex partner with concurrent partners, or a sex partner who has an STI)2
  • Retest during the 3rd trimester for women under 25 years of age or at risk2
  • Pregnant women with chlamydial infection should have a test of cure 4 weeks after treatment and be retested within 3 months2
Gonorrhea
  • All pregnant women under 25 years of age, and those 25 and older if at increased risk (those who have a new sex partner, more than one sex partner, a sex partner with concurrent partners, or a sex partner who has an STI)1
  • Retest during the 3rd trimester for women under 25 years of age or at risk2
  • Pregnant women with gonorrhea should be retested within 3 months2
Syphilis
  • All pregnant women at the first prenatal visit14
  • Retest at 28 weeks gestation and at delivery if at high risk (lives in a community with high syphilis morbidity or is at risk for syphilis acquisition during pregnancy (using drugs, STIs during pregnancy, multiple partners, a new partner, partner with STIs))2
Herpes
  • Evidence does not support routine HSV-2 serologic screening among asymptomatic pregnant women. However, type-specific serologic tests might be useful for identifying pregnant women at risk for HSV infection and guiding counseling regarding the risk for acquiring genital herpes during pregnancy.2
HIV
  • All pregnant women should be screened at first prenatal visit (opt-out)8
  • Retest in the 3rd trimester if at high risk (people who use drugs, have STIs during pregnancy, have multiple sex partners during pregnancy, have a new sex partner during pregnancy, live in areas with high HIV prevalence, or have partners with HIV)15
  • Rapid testing should be performed at delivery if not previous screened during pregnancy8
HPV, Cervical Cancer, Anal Cancer
  • Pregnant women should be screened at same intervals as nonpregnant cis-gender women
Hepatitis B Screening
  • Test for HBsAg at first prenatal visit of each pregnancy regardless of prior testing; retest at delivery if at high risk16
Hepatitis C Screening
  • Pregnant women should be screened for hepatitis C except in settings where the hepatitis C infection (HCV) positivity is < 0.1%13
Men Who Have Sex with Women
Chlamydia
  • There is insufficient evidence for screening among heterosexual men who are at low risk for infection, however, screening young men can be considered in high prevalence clinical settings (adolescent clinics, correctional facilities, STI/sexual health clinic)1, 17 
Gonorrhea
  • There is insufficient evidence for screening among heterosexual men who are at low risk for infection1, 17
Syphilis
  • Screen asymptomatic adults at increased risk (history of incarceration or commercial sex work, geography, race/ethnicity, and being a male younger than 29 years) for syphilis infection2,5
Herpes
  • Type-specific HSV serologic testing can be considered for men presenting for an STI evaluation (especially for men with multiple sex partners)2, 6
HIV
  • All men aged 13-64 years (opt-out)**7
  • All men who seek evaluation and treatment for STIs2
Hepatitis B Screening
  • Men at increased risk (i.e., by sexual or percutaneous exposure)12
Hepatitis C Screening
  • All adults over age 18 years should be screened for hepatitis C except in settings where the hepatitis C infection (HCV) positivity is < 0.1%13
Men Who Have Sex with Men
Chlamydia
  • At least annually for sexually active MSM at sites of contact (urethra, rectum) regardless of condom use2
  • Every 3 to 6 months if at increased risk (i.e., MSM on PrEP, with HIV infection, or if they or their sex partners have multiple partners)2
Gonorrhea
  • At least annually for sexually active MSM at sites of contact (urethra, rectum, pharynx) regardless of condom use2
  • Every 3 to 6 months if at increased risk2
Syphilis
  • At least annually for sexually active MSM2
  • Every 3 to 6 months if at increased risk2
Herpes
  • Type-specific serologic tests can be considered if infection status is unknown in MSM with previously undiagnosed genital tract infection2, 6
HIV
  • At least annually for sexually active MSM if HIV status is unknown or negative and the patient or their sex partner(s) have had more than one sex partner since most recent HIV test2, 8, 18
  • Consider the benefits of offering more frequent HIV screening (e.g., every 3–6 months) to MSM at increased risk for acquiring HIV infection.
HPV, Cervical Cancer, Anal Cancer
  • Digital anorectal rectal exam2
  • Data is insufficient to recommend routine anal cancer screening with anal cytology2
Hepatitis B Screening
  • All MSM should be tested for HBsAg, HBV core antibody, and HBV surface antibody12
Hepatitis C Screening
  • All adults over age 18 years should be screened for hepatitis C except in settings where the hepatitis C infection (HCV) positivity is < 0.1%13
Transgender and Gender Diverse Persons
Chlamydia
  • Screening recommendations should be adapted based on anatomy (i.e., annual, routine screening in cis-gender women < 25 years old should be extended to all transgender men and gender diverse people with a cervix. If over 25 years old, persons with a cervix should be screened if at increased risk).2
  • Consider screening at the rectal site based on reported sexual behaviors and exposure2
Gonorrhea
  • Screening recommendations should be adapted based on anatomy (i.e., annual, routine screening for gonorrhea in cisgender women < 25 years old should be extended to all transgender men and gender diverse people with a cervix. If over 25 years old, screen if at increased risk).2
  • Consider screening at the pharyngeal and rectal site based on reported sexual behaviors and exposure2
Syphilis
  • Consider screening at least annually based on reported sexual behaviors and exposure2
HIV
  • HIV screening should be discussed and offered to all transgender persons. Frequency of repeat screenings should be based on level of risk2, 18
HPV, Cervical Cancer, Anal Cancer
  • Screening for people with a cervix should follow current screening guidelines for cervical cancer2
Persons with HIV
Chlamydia
  • For sexually active individuals, screen at first HIV evaluation, and at least annually thereafter2, 20
  • More frequent screening for might be appropriate depending on individual risk behaviors and the local epidemiology2
Gonorrhea
  • For sexually active individuals, screen at first HIV evaluation, and at least annually thereafter2, 20
  • More frequent screening might be appropriate depending on individual risk behaviors and the local epidemiology2
Syphilis
  • For sexually active individuals, screen at first HIV evaluation, and at least annually thereafter21, 6
  • More frequent screening might be appropriate depending on individual risk behaviors and the local epidemiology2
Herpes
  • Type-specific HSV serologic testing should be considered for persons presenting for an STI evaluation (especially for those persons with multiple sex partners)2
Trichomonas
  • Recommended for sexually active women at entry to care and at least annually thereafter2, 21
HPV, Cervical Cancer, Anal Cancer
  • Women with HIV should be screened within 1 year of sexual activity using conventional or liquid-based cytology; testing should be repeated 6 months later. With 3 normal and consecutive Pap tests, screening should be every 3 years19, 22
Hepatitis B Screening
  • Test for HBsAg and anti-HBc and/or anti-HBs12
Hepatitis C Screening
  • Serologic testing at initial evaluation2, 13
  • Annual HCV testing in MSM with HIV infection2, 13

** USPSTF recommends screening in adults and adolescents ages 15-65

  1. LeFevre ML. Screening for Chlamydia and Gonorrhea: U.S. Preventive Services Task Force Recommendation Statement. Annals of internal medicine. Sep 23 2014.
  2. Workowski KA, Bachmann L, Chan P, Johnston C, Muzny C, Park I, Reno H, Zenilman J, Bolan G. Sexually Transmitted Infections, 2021. MMWR Recomm Rep 2021:70(No. RR-04):1-187.
  3. Bamberger, DM, et al. Extragenital Gonorrhea and Chlamydia Among Men and Women According to Type of Sexual Exposure. Sex Transm Dis, 2019. 46(5): p. 329-334.
  4. Chan PA, Robinette A, Montgomery M, et al. Extragenital Infections Caused by Chlamydia trachomatis and Neisseria gonorrhoeae: A Review of the Literature. Infect Dis Obstet Gynecol. 2016.
  5. Kirsten Bibbins-Domingo. USPSTF Recommendation Statement, Screening for Syphilis Infection in Nonpregnant Adults and Adolescents U.S. Preventive Services Task Force Recommendation Statement. JAMA June 7, 2016 Volume 315, Number 21: 2321-2327.
  6. Type-specific HSV-2 serologic assays for diagnosing HSV-2 are useful in the following scenarios: recurrent or atypical genital symptoms or lesions with a negative HSV PCR or culture result, clinical diagnosis of genital herpes without laboratory confirmation, and a patient’s partner has genital herpes. HSV-2 serologic screening among the general population is not recommended. Patients who are at higher risk for infection (e.g., those presenting for an STI evaluation, especially for persons with ≥10 lifetime sex partners, and persons with HIV infection) might need to be assessed for a history of genital herpes symptoms, followed by type-specific HSV serologic assays to diagnose genital herpes for those with genital symptoms.
  7. Branson BM, et al. Revised Recommendations for HIV Testing of Adults, Adolescents, and Pregnant Women in Healthcare Settings. MMWR. 2006;55(No. RR-14):1-17.
  8. Owens DK. U.S. Preventive Services Task Force. Screening for HIV: U.S. Preventive Services Task Force Recommendation Statement. JAMA. 2019 321(23): 2326-2336.
  9. Committee on Practice Bulletins—Gynecology. Practice bulletin no. 157: Cervical Cancer Screening and Prevention. Obstet Gynecol 2016;127:e1–20. PMID:26695583 https://doi.org/10.1097/ AOG.0000000000001263
  10. Fontham ETH, Wolf AMD, Church TR, et al. Cervical Cancer Screening for Individuals at Average Risk: 2020 Guideline Update from the American Cancer Society. CA Cancer J Clin 2020;70:321–46. PMID:32729638 https://doi.org/10.3322/caac.21628external iconexternal icon
  11. Curry SJ, et al. Screening for Cervical Cancer: U.S. Preventive Services Task Force Recommendation Statement. JAMA, 2018. 320(7): p. 674-686.
  12. Schillie S, Vellozzi C, Reingold A, et al. Prevention of Hepatitis B Virus Infection in the United States: Recommendations of the Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices. MMWR Recomm Rep 2018;67(No. RR-1). PMID:29939980 https://www.cdc.gov/mmwr/volumes/67/rr/rr6701a1.htm.
  13. Screening for Hepatitis C Virus Infection in Adolescents and Adults U.S. Preventive Services Task Force Recommendation Statement U.S. Preventive Services Task Force Article Informationexternal icon JAMA. 2020;323(10):970-975. doi:10.1001/jama.2020.1123.
  14. Screening for Syphilis Infection in Pregnant Women U.S. Preventive Services Task Force Reaffirmation Recommendation Statement. JAMA September 4, 2018 Volume 320, Number 9.
  15. Committee on Obstetric Practice HIV Expert Work Group. ACOG Committee opinion no. 752: Prenatal and Perinatal Human Immunodeficiency Virus Testing. Obstet Gynecol 2018;132:e138–42. PMID:30134428 https://doi.org/10.1097/AOG.0000000000002825external icon
  16. Henderson JT, Webber EM, Bean SI. Screening for Hepatitis B Infection in Pregnant Women: Updated Evidence Report and Systematic Review for the U.S. Preventive Services Task Force. JAMA. 2019;322(4):360–362.
  17. Rietmeijer CA, Hopkins E, Geisler WM, Orr DP, Kent CK. Chlamydia trachomatis Positivity Rates Among Men Tested in Selected Venues in the United States: A Review of the Recent Literature. Sex Transm Dis 2008;35(Suppl):S8–18. PMID:18449072 https://doi.org/10.1097/ OLQ.0b013e31816938ba.
  18. DiNenno EA, et al. Recommendations for HIV Screening of Gay, Bisexual, and Other Men Who Have Sex with Men – United States, 2017. MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep, 2017. 66(31): p. 830-832.
  19. Data are insufficient to recommend routine anal cancer screening with anal cytology among populations at risk for anal cancer. Certain clinical centers perform anal cytology to screen for anal cancer among populations at high risk (e.g., persons with HIV infection, MSM, and those having receptive anal intercourse), followed by high-resolution anoscopy (HRA) for those with abnormal cytologic results (e.g., ACS-US, LSIL, or HSIL)
  20. Thompson MA, Horberg MA, Agwu AL, et al. Primary Care Guidelines for Persons With HIV: 2020 Update by the HIV Medicine Association of the Infectious Diseases Society of America.  CID. Nov 6 2020.
  21. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Health Resources and Services Administration, National Institutes of Health, American Academy of HIV Medicine, Association of Nurses in AIDS Care, International Association of Providers of AIDS Care, the National Minority AIDS Council, and Urban Coalition for HIV/AIDS Prevention Services. Recommendations for HIV Prevention with Adults and Adolescents with HIV in the United States, 2014. 2014. http://stacks.cdc.gov/view/cdc/26062. December 11, 2014.
  22. Panel on Opportunistic Infections in Adults and Adolescents with HIV. Guidelines for the prevention and treatment of opportunistic infections in adults and adolescents with HIV: recommendations from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, the National Institutes of Health, and the HIV Medicine Association of the Infections Diseases Society of America. Available at https://clinicalinfo.hiv.gov/sites/default/files/guidelines/documents/Adult_OI.pdfpdf iconexternal icon