OCCUPATIONAL VIOLENCE

Resources

NIOSH Fast Facts Taxi Drivers How to Prevent Robbery and Violence
NIOSH Publication No. 2020-100 (October 2019)
Workplace violence can result in injuries and deaths and includes both physical assaults and verbal abuse like yelling or namecalling. This fact sheet recommends strategies for taxi drivers to prevent or reduce the likelihood of violence during a shift.

NIOSH Traumatic Injury Prevention Program
NIOSH Publication No. 2019-145 (July 2019)
The Traumatic Injury Prevention Program strives to improve workplace safety to reduce traumatic injuries. This snapshot shows recent accomplishments and upcoming work.

Emergency medical services workers: how employers can prevent injuries and exposures
NIOSH Publication No. 2017-194 (July 2017)
Employers need to understand why injuries occur in order to prevent them. Fewer injuries can result in a healthier workforce and decreased costs to the agency. This fact sheet highlights results from a four-year study capturing data from EMS workers treated in emergency departments and provides recommendations for prevention.

Workplace Violence Prevention Course for Nurses
NIOSH Publication No. 2017-114 (December 2016)
Healthcare workers face the risk of physical and non-physical violence on the job. In 2014, more than 9,000 healthcare professionals experienced workplace violence related injuries that required days away from work. To address this issue, NIOSH developed an award-winning, online Workplace Violence Prevention Course for Nurses. This flyer provides information on the course.

Women’s Safety and Health Issues at Work
NIOSH Topic Page
Homicide is the leading cause of injury death for women in the workplace, accounting for 40% of all workplace death among female workers. Workplace homicides are primarily robbery-related, and often occur in grocery/convenience stores, eating and drinking establishments, and gasoline service stations. Over 25% of female victims of workplace homicide are assaulted by people they know (co-workers, customers, spouses, or friends). Domestic violence incidents that spill into the workplace account for 16% of female victims of job-related homicides.

Workplace Violence Prevention Strategies and Research Needs
NIOSH Publication No. 2006-144 (September 2006)
This report summarizes discussions that took place during Partnering in Workplace Violence Prevention: Translating Research to Practice—a landmark conference held in Baltimore, Maryland, on November 15–17, 2004.

Violence on the Job
NIOSH Publication No. 2004-100D (DVD)
This video discusses practical measures for identifying risk factors for violence at work, and taking strategic action to keep employees safe. It is based on extensive NIOSH research, supplemented with information from other authoritative sources.

Working with Stress
NIOSH Publication No. 2003-114D (DVD), Publication No. 2003-114V (VHS)
This DVD program describes workplace factors that can create or exacerbate worker stress, and suggests practical measures for reducing job-related stress through changes in work organization. Working with Stress is the first NIOSH training and educational video program on the topic of workplace stress. It is a companion program to the 1999 NIOSH document, Stress … At Work.

Violence: Occupational Hazards in Hospitals
NIOSH Publication No. 2002-101 (April 2002)
This brochure provides information to increase worker and employer awareness of the risk factors for violence in hospitals and to provide strategies for reducing exposure to these factors.
En español

Workplace violence prevention for nurses
American Journal of Nursing: September 2019 / 119(9):19-20

New Jersey home health care aides survey results
Home Health Care Management & Practice: August 2019 / :172-178

Workplace violence victimization in young workers: an analysis of the US National Crime Victimization Survey, 2008 to 2012
American Journal of Industrial Medicine: August 2019 / 62(8):691-700

Home care aides’ experiences of verbal abuse: a survey of characteristics and risk factors
Occupational & Environmental Medicine: July 2019 / 76(7):448-454

Sex and gender role differences in occupational exposures and work outcomes among registered nurses in correctional settings
Annals of Work Exposures and Health: June 2019 / 63(5):568-582

Work-related injuries within a large urban public school system in the Mid-Western United States
Work: March 2019 / 62(3):373-382

Interventions against bullying of prelicensure students and nursing professionals: an integrative review
Nursing Forum: January 2019 / 54(1):84-90

Comparative psychometric review of the Negative Acts Questionnaire-Revised in a unionized U.S. public sector workforce.
Work: January 2019 / 62(1):161-171

Suicide rates by major occupational group – 17 states, 2012 and 2015
Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report (MMWR): November 2018 / 67(45):1253-1260

Negative responses to workplace incivility in home care workers
19th Annual Pilot Research Project Symposium: October 11-12, 2018 / :1-12

Career fire fighter killed and volunteer fire fighter seriously wounded when shot during a civilian welfare check – Maryland
National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health, FACE F2016-06: October 2018 / :1-27

Organizational determinants of workplace violence against hospital workers
Journal of Occupational and Environmental Medicine: August 2018 / 60(8):693-699

Nonfatal injuries to law enforcement officers: a rise in assaults
American Journal of Preventive Medicine: April 2018 / 54(4):503-509

Workplace violence injury in 106 US hospitals participating in the Occupational Health Safety Network (OHSN), 2012-2015
American Journal of Industrial Medicine: February 2018 / 61(2):157-166

Testing the reciprocal associations among co-worker incivility, organisational inefficiency, and work-related exhaustion: A one-year, cross-lagged study
Work Stress: February 2018 / 32(4):334-356

Aggression-preventive supervisor behaviors targeting aggression from patients
Violence and abuse in and around organisations: January 2018 / :77-101

The relationship between shiftwork and violence against nurses: a case control study
Workplace Health & Safety: December 2017 / 65(12):603-611

Negative responses to workplace incivility in home care workers
18th Annual Pilot Research Project Symposium: October 5-6, 2017 / :1

Hospital security director background, opinions, and the implementation of security programs
Journal of Applied Security Research: October 2017 / 12(4):497-511

Worksite walkthrough intervention: data-driven prevention of workplace violence on hospital units.
Journal of Occupational and Environmental Medicine: September 2017 / 59(9):875-884

Work-related violent deaths in the US taxi and limousine industry 2003 to 2013: disparities within a high-risk working population
Journal of Occupational and Environmental Medicine: August 2017 / 59(8):768-774

“Nurses eat their young”: a novel bullying educational program for student nurses
Journal of Nursing Education and Practice: July 2017 / 7(7):11-21

Computer-based training (CBT) intervention reduces workplace violence and harassment for homecare workers
American Journal of Industrial Medicine: July 2017 / 60(7):635-643

Reflective responses following a role-play simulation of nurse bullying
Nursing Education Perspectives: July/August 2017 / 38(4):203-205

Safety risks among home infusion nurses and other home health care providers
Journal of Infusion Nursing: July/August 2017 / 40(4):215-223

QuickStats: percentage of adult workers aged >/=18 years who reported being threatened, bullied, or harassed while on the job, by sex – National Health Interview Survey, United States, 2010 and 2015
Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report (MMWR): April 2017 / 66(16):429

Linking workplace aggression to employee well-being and work: the moderating role of family-supportive supervisor behaviors (FSSB).
Journal of Business and Psychology: April 2017 / 32(2):179-196

Workplace Violence and Training Required by New Legislation among NJ Nurses
Journal of Environmental Medicine: April 2017 / 59(4):e35-e40

Nursing student evaluation of NIOSH workplace violence prevention for nurses online course
Journal of Safety Research: February 2017 / 60:85-91

The impact of perceived intensity and frequency of police work occupational stressors on the cortisol awakening response (CAR): findings from the BCOPS study.
Psychoneuroendocrinology: January 2017 / 75:124-131

Preventing patient-to-worker violence in hospitals: outcome of a randomized controlled intervention
Journal of Occupational and Environmental Medicine: January 2017 / 59(1):18-27

Workplace violence and hospital security programs: regulatory compliance, program benchmarks, innovative strategies
Journal of Healthcare Protection Management: January 2017 / 33(1):89-105

The relationship between US military officer leadership behaviors and risk of sexual assault of Reserve, National Guard, and active component servicewomen in nondeployed locations
American Journal of Public Health: January 2017 / 107(1):147-155

Highly rated and most frequent stressors among police officers: gender differences
American Journal of Criminal Justice: December 2016 / 41(4):645-662

Client history and violence on direct care workers in the home care setting
American Journal of Industrial Medicine: December 2016 / 59(12):1130-1135

Using a system-wide database to reduce workplace violence in hospitals.
National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health, R01-OH-009948: November 2016 / :1-36

Sentinel events preceding youth firearm violence: an investigation of administrative data in Delaware.
American Journal of Preventive Medicine: November 2016 / 51(5):647-655

Violent deaths among Georgia workers: an examination of suicides and homicides by occupation, 2006-2009
American Journal of Preventive Medicine: November 2016 / 51(5)(Suppl 3):S241-S250

Hospital workers bypass traditional occupational injury reporting systems when reporting patient and visitor perpetrated (type II) violence
American Journal of Industrial Medicine: October 2016 / 59(10):853-865

Development and evaluation of a hospital violence surveillance system
National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health, R01-OH-009697: October 2016 / :1-147

Psychological distress and workplace bullying among registered nurses
Online Journal of Issues in Nursing: September 2016 / 21(3)

Interactive training improves workplace climate, knowledge, and support towards domestic violence
American Journal of Industrial Medicine: July 2016 / 59(7):538-548

Recognizing, confronting, and eliminating workplace bullying
Workplace Health & Safety: July 2016 / 64(7):337-341

A concise, content valid, gender invariant measure of workplace incivility
Journal of Occupational Health Psychology: July 2016 / 21(3):352-365

Do adolescent employees perceive the risks of workplace violence? A mixed methods study
Journal of Nursing Education and Practice: July 2016 / 6(7):116-124

Workplace violence and supervisor support in healthcare – linking workplace aggression to employee well-being and work: the moderating role of family-supportive supervisor behaviors (FSSB)
Olympia, WA: Washington State Department of Labor and Industries, 75-21-2016: June 2016 / :1

Occupational health of home care aides: results of the safe home care survey.
Occupational & Environmental Medicine: April 2016 / 73(4):237-245

Compliance to two city convenience store ordinance requirements
Injury Prevention: April 2016 / 22(2):117-122

Response to letter to the editor, “measurement of workplace violence reporting”
Workplace Health & Safety: February 2016 / 64(2):46-47

Worker-to-worker violence in hospitals: perpetrator characteristics and common dyads
Workplace Health & Safety: February 2016 / 64(2):51-56

Characteristics of workplace violence prevention training and violent events among home health and hospice care providers
American Journal of Industrial Medicine: January 2016 / 59(1):23-30

Management safety climate and violence prevention climate: a mediational model for healthcare employee outcomes
Detroit, MI: Wayne State University: January 2016 / :1-116

Efforts to prevent workplace violence against nurses
CDC Nurses Work Group (CNWG) Newsletter: June 2015 / (5):4-5

Suicide in U.S. workplaces, 2003–2010: A comparison with non-workplace suicides
American Journal of Preventive Medicine: June 2015 / 48(6):674-682

Barriers to effective implementation of programs for the prevention of workplace violence in hospitals
The Online Journal of Issues in Nursing: January 2015 / 20(1):1

Incidence and risk factors of workplace violence on psychiatric staff
Work: May 2015 / 51(1):19-28

Workplace violence prevention for nurses’ on-line course: Program development
Work: May 2015 / 51(1):79-89

Cities with camera-equipped taxicabs experience reduced taxicab driver homicide rates: United States, 1996-2010
Crime Science: May 2014 / 3:4

Non-robbery related homicides among retail workers, 2003-2008
American Journal of Industrial Medicine: November 2013 / 57(2):245-53

The effectiveness of taxicab security equipment in reducing driver homicide rates
American Journal of Preventive Medicine: July 2013 / 45(1):1-8

Disparities in work-related homicide rates among workers in selected retail industries in the United States, 2003-2008
Journal of Safety Research: February 2013 / 44:25-29

NIOSHTIC-2 is a searchable bibliographic database of occupational safety and health publications, documents, grant reports, and journal articles supported in whole or in part by NIOSH.

Recommended NIOSHTIC search terms for workplace violence:

  • Homicide
  • Violence
  • Aggression
  • Bullying
  • Harassment
  • Mistreatment

Bureau of Justice Statistics:

Workplace Violence, 1993-2009 pdf icon[PDF 624 KB]external icon
A Bureau of Justice Statistics (BJS) Special Report based on the National Crime Victimization Survey (NCVS). The report presents data on rape, sexual assault, robbery, aggravated assault, and simple assault against persons age 16 or older while they were at work or on duty.

Bureau of Labor Statistics (BLS) Homicide Data:

Table A-2. Fatal occupational injuries resulting from transportation incidents and homicides, All United States, 2014pdf iconexternal icon

Table A-6. Fatal occupational injuries resulting from transportation incidents and homicides by occupation, All United States, 2014pdf iconexternal icon

BLS User Selected Data (e.g., occupations, demographic information, and homicides):

Public Data Query of Census of Fatal Occupational Injuries (CFOI) dataexternal icon (refer to Workplace Injuries section)

Department of Homeland Security:

Violence in the Federal Workforce: A Guide for Prevention and Responsepdf iconexternal icon

Active Shooter Preparednessexternal icon

Federal Bureau of Investigation:

Violence in the Workplace: Preventing It; Managing Itexternal icon
The Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI) released a monograph entitled Workplace Violence: Issues in Response. [PDF – 6,227 KB]external icon The monograph resulted from a June 2002 symposium hosted by the FBI’s National Center for the Analysis of Violent Crime entitled “Violence in the Workplace.” Representatives from NIOSH, other law enforcement organizations, private industry, government, law, labor, professional organizations, victim services, academic, and mental health agencies joined the FBI to share their expertise on this important issue.

Government Accountability Office:

Workplace Safety and Health: Additional Efforts Needed to Help Protect Health Care Workers from Workplace Violenceexternal icon
This report includes findings from the Government Accountability Office’s (GAO) review of workplace violence incidents in health care facilities.

Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA):

OSHA Safety and Health Topics: Workplace Violenceexternal icon
Workplace violence has emerged as an important safety and health issue in today’s workplace. Its most extreme form, homicide, is a leading cause of fatal occupational injury in the United States. Environmental conditions associated with workplace assaults have been identified and control strategies implemented in a number of work settings. OSHA has developed guidelines and recommendations to reduce worker exposures to this hazard but is not initiating rulemaking at this time.

Worker Safety in Hospitals: Caring for Our Caregiversexternal icon

Enforcement Procedures for Investigating or Inspecting Workplace Violence Incidentsexternal icon
OSHA Directive CPL 02-01-052, (2011, September 8)

Preventing Violence Against Taxi and For-Hire Drivers pdf icon[PDF – 64 KB]external icon
OSHA Fact Sheet, (2010, April)

Recommendations for Workplace Violence Prevention Programs in Late-Night Retail Establishments pdf icon[PDF – 404 KB]external icon
OSHA Publication 3153-12R, (2009)

Office of Personnel Management:

Responding to Domestic Violence: Where Federal Employees Can Find Helpexternal icon

Page last reviewed: October 3, 2019