Cadmium metal CAS No. 7440-43-9
Cadmium fumes CAS No. 1306-19-0
Cadmium metal (Cd) is a silver-white solid, tinged with blue. Cadmium is found in cadmium fumes (CdO) and cadmium compounds. Workers may be harmed from exposure to cadmium. It is a highly toxic carcinogenic that is harmful to most of the body’s systems, especially to the lungs, bones, and kidneys. The level of exposure depends upon the dose, duration, and work being done.
Cadmium is used in many industries. It’s used in the manufacturing of some batteries and solar cells, electroplating, and silver soldering. Construction workers involved in demolition can be exposed to dust containing cadmium. Other examples of workers at risk of cadmium exposure include the following:
- Workers exposed to cadmium-containing pigments and coatings
- Factory workers in plants that manufacture Ni-Cd batteries
- Workers in electroplating shops or factories
- Electronic recycling workers exposed to telephone and electric cables
NIOSH recommends that employers use Hierarchy of Controls to prevent injuries. If you work in an industry that uses cadmium, please read chemical labels and the accompanying Safety Data Sheet for hazard information. Visit NIOSH’s page on Managing Chemical Safety in the Workplace to learn more about controlling chemical workplace exposures.
The following resources provide information about occupational exposure to cadmium. Useful search terms for cadmium fumes include “cadmium monoxide” and “cadmium oxide fumes.”
The NIOSH Pocket Guide to Chemical Hazards (NPG) helps workers, employers, and occupational health professionals recognize and control workplace chemical hazards.
The NIOSH Manual of Analytical Methods (NMAM) is a collection of methods for sampling and analysis of contaminants in workplace air, and in the blood and urine of workers who are occupationally exposed.
The Health Hazard Evaluation Program (HHE) conducts onsite investigations of possible worker exposure to chemicals. Search the HHE database for more information on cadmium.
- NIOSHTIC-2 search results on cadmium – NIOSHTIC-2 is a searchable database of worker safety and health publications, documents, grant reports, and journal articles supported in whole or in part by NIOSH.
- NIOSH Worker Health Study Summaries – NIOSH conducts research to prevent illnesses and injuries in the workplace. The NIOSH Worker Notification Program notifies workers and other stakeholders about the findings of these research studies.
- NIOSH Worker Health Study Summary for Cadmium Recovery Workers (1991)
- Documentation for Immediately Dangerous to Life or Health Concentrations (IDLH) for Cadmium Compounds – The IDLH documents the criteria and information sources that have been used by NIOSH to determine immediately dangerous to life or health concentrations.
- Criteria for a Recommendation Standard: Occupational Exposure to Cadmium – DHHS (NIOSH) Publication No. 76-192 (1976). Presents a standard to prevent the adverse effects of exposure to cadmium over a working lifetime.
- Current Intelligence Bulletin No. 42: Cadmium (Cd) – DHHS (NIOSH) Publication No. 84-116 (1984)
- NIOSH Occupational Health Guidelines for Cadmium Dust (as Cadmium)*Cdc-pdf
- NIOSH Occupational Health Guidelines for Cadmium FumeCdc-pdf
- Cadmium and Compounds, as Cd (7048) Measurement MethodsCdc-pdf
- ATSDR ToxFAQs for Cadmium
- ATSDR Toxicological Profile for Cadmium
- EPA Air Toxics: Cadmium CompoundsCdc-pdfExternal
- EPA Chemistry Dashboard: CadmiumExternal
- EPA Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS): CadmiumExternal
- NLM Haz-Map: Cadmium Oxide and Cadmium CompoundsExternal
- NLM Hazardous Substance Data Bank: CadmiumExternal
- NTP Report on Carcinogens (Fourteenth Edition): Cadmium and Cadmium CompoundsCdc-pdfExternal
- NTP Scientific Review of Cadmium and Cadmium CompoundsExternal
- OSHA Chemical Sampling InformationExternal
- OSHA Hazard Communication StandardExternal
- OSHA Safety and Health Topics: CadmiumExternal
- New Jersey Hazardous Substance Fact Sheet: CadmiumCdc-pdfExternal
- European Chemicals Agency (ECHA): Cadmium CompoundsExternal
- IARC Monographs: Cadmium and Cadmium CompoundsCdc-pdfExternal
- International Chemical Safety Cards: Cadmium and Cadmium CompoundsExternal
- IPCS INCHEM: Environment Health Criteria 134: CadmiumExternal
- IPCS INCHEM: CadmiumExternal
- Gestis Substance DatabaseExternal
- OECD Global Portal to Information on Chemical SubstancesExternal