Sand & Gravel Operator Mining Facts - 2008 (HTML)
DHHS (NIOSH) Publication No. 2011–167
In 2008, a total of 7,132 sand and gravel mining operations reported employment to the Mine Safety and Health Administration (MSHA). 
- Sand and gravel mines were the largest mining commodity, comprising 47.8% of all mining operations.
- Sand and gravel mines were found throughout all 50 states and Puerto Rico.
- Minnesota had the largest number of sand and gravel mines (n=488; 6.8%).
- Within the mining sectors,  sand and gravel mine operator employees accounted for 9.8% of all employee hours reported to MSHA.
- All sand and gravel operator hours reported were for surface work locations.
|Commodity and Type|
|Sand and Gravel Operator||78.9||78.1||77.0||75.3||74.8||76.6||78.4||79.6||76.7||66.7|
Three occupational fatalities occurred among sand and gravel operator employees in 2008. This compared to five fatalities in 2007.
Nonfatal Lost-time Injuries
There were 550 nonfatal lost-time injuries among sand and gravel operator employees occurring at an overall rate of 1.9 [95% confidence interval (CI): 1.7; 2.1] injuries per 100 FTE employees. A total of 25,912 days lost from work  resulted from these injuries.
- The most frequent classifications of nonfatal lost-time injuries for sand and gravel operator employees involved handling materials (n=196; 35.6%) and slip or fall of person (n=136; 24.7%).
- Sprains and strains were the most frequently reported nature of injury (n=213; 38.7%).
- The back was the most frequently reported body part injured (n=105; 19.1%) followed by fingers (n=88; 16.0%). Back injuries represented 3,697 days lost from work; finger injuries represented 2,623 days lost.
|Slip or fall of person||24.7|
Mining operations, 2008
|Commodity and Type of Employer||Underground Mining Operations ||Surface Mining Operations ||Total Mining Operations |
|Sand & Gravel||Not applicable||7,132||7,132|
Contracting companies, 2008
|Commodity and Type of Employer||Number of Companies|
Employment characteristics, 2008
|Commodity and Type of Employer||Underground Employees ||Surface Employees ||Total Employees ||Underground FTE Employees ||Surface FTE Employees ||Total FTE Employees |
|Sand & Gravel Operator||Not applicable||42,307||42,307||Not applicable||33,343||33,343|
Mining Occupational Fatalities (per 100,000 FTE employees), 2008
|Commodity and Type of Employer||Underground Fatalities||Underground Fatality Rate||Surface Fatalities||Surface Fatality Rate||Fatalities||Fatality Rate|
|Metal Operator||3||Not Calculated||2||Not Calculated||5||13.8|
|Nonmetal Operator||1||Not Calculated||1||Not Calculated||2||Not Calculated|
|Stone Operator||1||Not Calculated||6||9.4||7||10.6|
|Sand & Gravel Operator||Not applicable||Not applicable||3||Not Calculated||3||Not Calculated|
|Coal Contractor||3||Not Calculated||9||43.4||12||48.3|
|Noncoal Contractor||0||Not Calculated||5||13.9||5||13.2|
|Contractor Total||3||Not Calculated||14||24.7||17||27.1|
Nonfatal Lost-time Injuries (per 100 FTE employees), 2008
|Commodity and Type of Employer||Underground Injuries||Underground Injury Rate||Surface Injuries||Surface Injury Rate||Injuries||Injury Rate|
|Sand & Gravel Operator||Not applicable||Not applicable||550||1.9||550||1.9|
Not calculated when N is less than 5. 95% CI for rates reported above. Totals may not sum due to independent rounding.
Data source: publicly released employment and accident/injury/illness data collected by MSHA under 30 CFR 50.
Notes: All analyses of accident data exclude office employees. Occupational fatalities exclude all cases under 17 years of age. Further statistical methodology is available on the NIOSH Internet. Caution should be used when interpreting rates based on a small number of events.
- Mines at which only independent contractors were working did not show any employment and were not counted.
- Average number of employees working at individual mines during calendar quarters of active operations (includes office workers).
- Full-time equivalent employees computed using reported employee hours (2,000 hours = 1 FTE).
- Mining sectors include coal operators, metal operators, nonmetal operators, stone operators, sand and gravel operators, coal contractors, and noncoal contractors.
- Includes actual days away from work and/or days of restricted work activity. For permanently disabling injuries only, statutory days charged by MSHA were used if they exceeded the total lost workdays.
To receive NIOSH documents or more information about occupational safety and health topics, contact NIOSH at 1-800-CDC-INFO (1-800-232-4636), TTY: 1-888-232-6348: email@example.com, or visit the NIOSH website.
- Ergonomic Interventions at Unimin
- Sand and Gravel Mining Facts - 2001
- Sand and Gravel Operator Mining Facts - 2002
- Sand and Gravel Operator Mining Facts - 2003
- Sand and Gravel Operator Mining Facts - 2004
- Sand and Gravel Operator Mining Facts - 2005
- Sand and Gravel Operator Mining Facts - 2006
- Sand and Gravel Operator Mining Facts - 2007
- Sand and Gravel Operator Mining Facts - 2008
- Snapshot of Noise and Worker Exposures in Sand and Gravel Operations
- Page last reviewed: 3/2/2015
- Page last updated: 3/28/2014
- Content source: National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health, Mining Program