Mining Contract: Mine Escape Vehicle Technology Retrofit Demonstration
The objective of this contract is to conceptually demonstrate the integration of selected, appropriate mine escape vehicle escape enhancements into existing mantrips being refurbished or new mantrips under construction. The project effort will also support continued evaluation and refinement of the mine escape vehicle concept along with the durability and effectiveness of the selected escape enhancements.
Contract Status & Impact
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The investigation and analysis of past mine disasters has determined the need to develop technologies and tools that enhance a mine worker’s ability to self-escape from underground mines. The preferred means of escape by miners post-disaster is by the conveyance with which they entered the mine. In a previous contract, OMSHR evaluated the concept of providing mine workers with a vehicle containing technology enhancements to provide life support, communications, navigation, and guidance enhancements to aid miners in self escape. While this past work identified and evaluated the types of technologies that should be integrated into mantrips to enhance self-escape, the practicality of integrating some or all of the enhancements into existing mantrips was not determined, and several technologies evaluated under this previous work did not meet the necessary performance criteria.
As part of the current contract, Raytheon conducted an engineering analysis to evaluate recent advancements in those technologies that did not previously meet performance criteria. Several technologies likely to meet the desired performance criteria were identified, and feasibility assessments for retrofitting existing and newly manufactured mantrips to integrate these improved technologies were completed. The improved technologies were laboratory tested and were installed on the proof-of-concept vehicle which underwent evaluation in a simulated underground mine environment. At least two of the upgraded enhancement technologies showed significant potential: a fast-response methane detector technology and a vehicle guidance system technology. A fast-response methane detector that shuts down the vehicle before it enters into an explosive atmosphere is one way to ensure the vehicle does not cause an explosion while facilitating self-escape. Methane monitors with catalytic bead and infrared sensors were tested, with response time in moving airstreams being the performance criteria evaluated.
Comparative response time measurements of the two methane monitors under both static and dynamic conditions were documented, with the response time of the infrared sensor being significantly faster than that of the catalytic bead, making it the more desirable selection for the vehicle escape enhancement application. Numerous different guidance systems were also evaluated: electronic scanning radar, mechanical scanning radar, radar transducers, thermal camera, infrared camera, ultrasonic detection system, and scanning LiDAR. It was determined that, while it may be ideal to install several of these technologies on a special purpose vehicle as they can complement one another, an infrared camera system is a low-cost enhancement for existing mantrips which can provide significant improvement in limited or denied visibility situations.
The final task of this work effort was to develop practical designs for integration of these technologies in conjunction with the equipment manufacturers and mine operators. It is anticipated that in the future successful and practical escape enhancements will be offered by mine transportation vehicle manufacturers as options to aid miners in self-escape.
- Behavioral and Organizational Dimensions of Underground Mine Fires
- Development and Testing of a Mine Escape Vehicle (MEV)
- Emergency Escape and Refuge Alternatives
- Ignition of Methane-Air Mixtures by Laser Heated Small Particles
- Mine Escape Vehicle Concept Investigation
- Probability of Making a Successful Mine Escape While Wearing a Self-Contained Self-Rescuer
- Remote Methane Sensors
- Safety Concerns Associated With the Use of Electrically Powered Haulage to Remove Workers from Mines During Main Fan Stoppages
- Underground Vehicle Guidance Technology Refinement
- When Do You Take Refuge? Decisionmaking During Mine Emergency Escape