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Cresol (o, m, p isomers)

May 1994
Immediately Dangerous to Life or Health Concentrations (IDLH)

CAS numbers: 95­48­7 (o­isomer), 108­39­4 (m­isomer), 106­44­5 (p­isomer)

NIOSH REL: 2.3 ppm (10 mg/m3) TWA

Current OSHA PEL: 5 ppm (22 mg/m3) TWA [skin]

1989 OSHA PEL: Same as current PEL

1993­1994 ACGIH TLV: 5 ppm (22 mg/m3) TWA [skin]

Description of Substance: White crystals with a sweet, tarry odor.

LEL(@300 F): 1.4% (10% LEL(@300 F), 1,400 ppm)

Original (SCP) IDLH: 250 ppm

Basis for original (SCP) IDLH: The only quantitative acute inhalation toxicity data available are those cited by Patty [1963]. Patty [1963] reported that rats exposed for 8 hours to a saturated concentration of cresol vapors survived the exposure [Smyth 1956]. The chosen IDLH is based on the isomer with the highest vapor pressure, that of o­cresol, which yields a saturated concentration of 323 ppm at 25 C. The chosen IDLH appears to be conservative because no rats died as a result of this exposure which was for 8 hours. Based on the rat oral LD50 of 207 mg/kg for p­cresol [Biofax 1969 cited by NIOSH 1976], an IDLH of 250 ppm is reasonable.

Short­term exposure guidelines: None developed

ACUTE TOXICITY DATA

Lethal dose data:

Species Reference Route LD50(mg/kg) LDLo(mg/kg) Adjusted LD Derivedvalue
Cresols
Rat
Mouse
Mouse
Back et al. 1972
Back et al. 1972
Kuroki et al. 1982
oral
oral
oral
1,454
861
760
—–
—–
—–
2,262 ppm
1,339 ppm
1,182 ppm
226 ppm
134 ppm
118 ppm
o-Cresol
Rat
Rat
Mouse
Biofax 1969b
Deichmann and Witherup 1944
Gig Tr Prof Zabol 1974
oral
oral
oral
121
1,350
344
—–
—–
—–
188 ppm
2,100 ppm
535 ppm
19 ppm
210 ppm
54 ppm
m-Cresol
Rat
Rat
Mouse
Biofax 1969a
Deichmann and Witherup 1944
Gig Tr Prof Zabol 1974
oral
oral
oral
242
2,020
828
—–
—–
—–
376 ppm
3,142 ppm
1,288 ppm
38 ppm
314 ppm
129 ppm
p-Cresol
Rat
Rat
Mouse
Biofax 1969c
Deichmann and Witherup 1944
Gig Tr Prof Zabol 1974
oral
oral
oral
207
1,800
344
—–
—–
—–
322 ppm
2,800 ppm
535 ppm
32 ppm
280 ppm
54 ppm

 

Other animal data: Rats exposed to a saturated concentration of cresol vapors (about 150 to 380 ppm) survived the exposure for 8 hours [Smyth 1956].

Human data: None relevant for use in determining the revised IDLH.

Revised IDLH: 250 ppm [Unchanged]Basis for revised IDLH: Based on acute inhalation toxicity data in animals [Smyth 1956], the original IDLH for cresol (250 ppm) is not being revised at this time.

 

REFERENCES:

1. Back KC, Thomas AA, MacEwen JD [1972]. Reclassification of materials listed as transportation health hazards. Wright­Patterson Air Force Base, OH: 6570th Aerospace Medical Research Laboratory, Report No. TSA­20­72­3, pp. A­330 to A­331.

2. Biofax [1969a]. Data sheet 3­5/69. Northbrook, IL: Biofax Industrial Bio­Test Laboratories, Inc.

3. Biofax [1969b]. Data sheet 4­5/69. Northbrook, IL: Biofax Industrial Bio­Test Laboratories, Inc.

4. Biofax [1969c]. Data sheet 5­5/69. Northbrook, IL: Biofax Industrial Bio­Test Laboratories, Inc.

5. Deichmann WB, Witherup S [1944]. Phenol Studies. VI. The acute and comparative toxicity of phenol and o-, m-, and p­cresols for experimental animals. J Pharmacol Exp Ther 80:233­240.

6. Gig Tr Prof Zabol [1974]; 18(2):58­59 (in Russian).

7. Kuroki K, Murakami Y, Osumi T, Kimura T [1982]. A study on acute toxicity of formalin­guaiacol. Kyushu Shika Gakkai Zasshi (Journal of the Kyushu Dental Society) 36(6):932­939 (in Japanese).

8. NIOSH [1976]. GO64750. p­Cresol. In: Registry of toxic effects of chemical substances, 1976 ed. Cincinnati, OH: U.S. Department of Health, Education, and Welfare, Public Health Service, Center for Disease Control, National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health, DHEW (NIOSH) Publication No. 76­191, p. 353.

9. Patty FA, ed. [1963]. Industrial hygiene and toxicology. 2nd rev. ed. Vol. II. Toxicology. New York, NY: Interscience Publishers, Inc., p. 1390.

10. Smyth HF Jr [1956]. Improved communication: hygienic standards for daily inhalation. Am Ind Hyg Assoc Q 17(2):129­185.

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