Immediately Dangerous to Life or Health Concentrations (IDLH)
CAS number: 92–52–4
NIOSH REL: 1 mg/m3 (0.2 ppm) TWA
Current OSHA PEL: 1 mg/m3 (0.2 ppm) TWA
1989 OSHA PEL: Same as current PEL
1993-1994 ACGIH TLV: 1.3 mg/m3 (0.2 ppm) TWA
Description of Substance: Colorless to pale-yellow solid with a pleasant, characteristic odor.
LEL(@232 F): 0.6% (10% LEL(@232 F), 5,000 mg/m3)
Original (SCP) IDLH: 300 mg/m3
Basis for original (SCP) IDLH: The chosen IDLH is based on the following statements by Hakkinen et al. : “one fatal case of liver necrosis with some areas of cirrhosis occurred in a worker who had been regularly exposed to concentrations of vapor of approximately 100 mg/m3. Other workers with repeated exposure to concentrations greater than 5 mg/m3 had gastrointestinal symptoms as well as polyneuritic complaints, with abnormalities of both the electroencephalogram and electromyogram. Some showed hepatic damage detected by liver function tests and biopsy.”
Short-term exposure guidelines: None developed
ACUTE TOXICITY DATA
Lethal dose data:
|Species||Reference||Route||LD50(mg/kg)||LDLo(mg/kg)||Adjusted LD||Derived value|
|Deichmann et al. 1947Deichmann et al. 1947
Isshiki et al. 1983
|16,800 mg/m322,960 mg/m3
|1,680 mg/m32,296 mg/m3
Human data: It has been reported that one fatal case of liver necrosis with some areas of cirrhosis occurred in a worker who had been regularly exposed to vapor concentrations of approximately 100 mg/m3 [Hakkinen et al. 1973]. Other workers with repeated exposure to concentrations greater than 5 mg/m3 had gastrointestinal symptoms as well as polyneuritic complaints, with abnormalities of both the electroencephalogram and electromyogram [Hakkinen et al. 1973]. Some workers showed hepatic damage detected by liver function tests and biopsy [Hakkinen et al. 1973]. Workers exposed to concentrations ranging from 4.4 to 128 mg/m3 complained of the strong odor and irritation of the throat and eyes [Hakkinen et al. 1973].
|Revised IDLH: 100 mg/m3Basis for revised IDLH: The revised IDLH for diphenyl is 100 mg/m3 based on acute and chronic inhalation toxicity data in workers [Hakkinen et al. 1973].|
1. Deichmann WB, Kitzmiller KV, Dierker M, Witherup S . Observations on the effects of diphenyl, o- and p-aminodiphenyl, o- and p-nitrodiphenyl, and dehydroxyoctachlorodiphenyl upon experimental animals. J Ind Hyg Toxicol 29:1-3.
2. Hakkinen I, Siltanen E, Hernberg S, Seppalainen AM, Karli P, Vikkula E . Diphenyl poisoning in fruit paper production. Arch Environ Health 26:70-74.
3. Isshiki K, Miyata K, Matsui S, Tsutsumi M, Watanabe T . Effects of post-harvest fungicides and piperonyl butoxide on the acute toxicity of pesticides in mice. Shokuhin Eiseigaku Zasshi (Food Hygiene Journal) 24(3):268-274 (in Japanese).
4. Monsanto . Material safety data sheet: biphenyl (MSDS No. 000092524). St. Louis, MO: Monsanto Company, p. 3.